Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism 1. The of Napoleon Bonaparte
a. The chief threat to the Directory came form royalists who hoped to restore the Bourbon monarchy by legal means. Many of the émigrés had returned to France and their plans for a restoration drew support from devout Catholics and from citizens disgusted from the outcome of the revoulution. Monarchy promised stability. b. The spring elections of 1797 replaced most incumbents with constitutional monarchists, giving them a majority in the national legislature. At the request of the Directors, Napoleon Bonaparte, the general in charge of the French invasion of Italy, had sent a subordinate to Paris to guarantee the success of the coup. 2. Early Victories of Napoleon
c. Napoleon’s invasion of Italy was aimed towards depriving Austria of its rich Northern-Italian province of Lombardy. Napoleon was able to crush the Austrian and Sardinian armies. This skirmish was concluded with the Treaty of Campo Formio in Oct. 1797. This took Austria out of the war and crowned Napoleon’s campaign with success, allowing France to control all of Italy and Switzerland. d. In November 1797, Napoleon returned home to confront France’s only remaining enemy, Britain. Instead of crossing the channel and invading Britain directly, Napoleon instead decided to attack Egypt from the Ottoman Empire. i. Napoleon easily overran Egypt, but the invasion was a failure because the French fleet was destroyed in 1798, cutting off the army form France. The Ottoman, Russians, Austrians, and British joined together to create the Second Coalition Against France in 1799 and the Russians and Austrians retook Italy and Switzerland from French control. 3. The Constitution of the Year VIII
e. A new constitution was proposed by Abbe Sieyes. He wanted an executive body independent of the whims of electoral politics, a government based on the principle of “confidence form below, power from above.” ii. To do this, another coup would be necessary and Napoleon returned home to join with Abbe. The troops were able to ensure the success of the coup. iii. The proposed constitution divided executive authority among three consuls. Napoleon quickly pushed Sieyes aside and issued the Constitution of the Year VIII. iv. The new constitution established the rule of one man, the First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte. v. He was the first modern political figure to use the rhetoric of revolution and nationalism, to back it with military force, and to combine these elements into a mighty weapon of imperial expansion in the service of his own power. 4. The Consulate in France (1799-1804)
f. The Consulate ended the Revolution in France. The Third Estate had abolished hereditary privilege, and the careers thus opened to talent allowed them to achieve wealth, status and security for their property. Napoleon offered security for those of the wealthy upper Third Estate. vi. The voters approved his constitution.
5. Suppressing Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opposition
g. Napoleon justified the public’s confidence in himself by making peace with France’s enemies. Russia had already left the Second Coalition. A campaign in Italy brought another victory over Austria in 1800. vii. The Treaty of Luneville took Austria out of the war. Britain was now alone and in 1802, the Treaty of Amiens brought peace to Europe. viii. Napoleon restored peace at home by using flattery and bribery to win over his enemies. He required that they be loyal to him and no more. Napoleon ruthlessly suppressed any opposition. ix. Napoleon established a centralized administration, employed a secret police and stamped out the royalist rebellion in the west. x. An attack on his life gave Napoleon an excuse to persecute the Jacobins. He also violated the sovereignty of the German state of...
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