Analysis of the ethnography of communication; S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G by Dell Hymes through the tradition in Minahasa called “Maengket dance.”
As what we can learn from the ethnography of communication, more specific in the analysis or theory that was proposed by Dell Hymes called SPEAKING as the components of speech, Dell Hymes proposed that this model should provide the basis for an ethnography of speaking (sometimes called an ethnography of communication), which is in approach to the description of speech events that calls for an analysis of each of relevant factors. SPEAKING as the components of speech is an acronym of:
1. S stands from “setting or scene”
According to Hymes, setting refers to the time and place of the tradition, while setting refers to the abstract setting of the tradition. In Maengket dance, we can see that the setting of this tradition is in “harvest time.” According to the tradition, it is actually divided into three acts, the first called Maengket Makamberu, where we can find the setting of the tradition is in harvest time because in this scene the paddy cultivation takes a long time so that when the harvest time arrives, the farmers are happy and give thanks through song and dance, as what we can find in the first act of the Maengket dance. In this Maengket dance, we can also find out that the scene of this tradition is in “a new house,” what I meant is that a house that is just built by the people who work together to build the house and then the owner of the house will invite the people to come to his/her new house as his/her gratitude and this is called “rumambak”. This scene can be found in the act two called Maengket Rumamba. There’s also act three, it is called Maengket Lelaya’an, but there’s no setting or scene in this act. If we follow the detail of this tradition, the setting and scene are only in harvest time and in a time where there’s a new house that is built by the people. 2. P stands from “participants”
According to Hymes, Participants refer to people who involved in the speech community, speech events, speech acts and those are the speaker, listener, adresser, someone who takes part in a conversation, for the example in a prayer, telephone, classroom, etc. In Maengket dance, we can see that the participants are the singers and dancers consist of 20 until 30 people whether men or women, but we can also find in the tradition of this Maengket dance, the participants are also the farmers just like in the act one, it is called Maengket Makamberu, people in a community or society, we can call it neighbors just like in the act two called Maengket Rumamba and last but not least, the act three is the youth whether men or women, it can be found in act three called Maengket Lelaya’an. Just like what it was explained by Hymes, the participants are the speaker; in this case it is the singers and dancers who consist of 20-30 people whether men or women, the listener; in this case it is the people who watch the dance, the adresser; in this case it can be the guest because this Maengket dance is also shown in a special occasion such as when they have a special guest comes to visit their place or land. It is also shown in ceremony, those are Makamberu, Metabak, Masambo, Melaya dan Meraba. 3. E stands from “ends”
According to the theory of Hymes, ends refers to the expecting result from the participants or the goals of the participants. In Maengket dance, the ends can be found in act three also known as Maengket Lelaya’an, where the youth try to find their love to live their life with. After read the tradition of Maengket dance, we can also conclude that there are several ends that we can find or conclude in this tradition, first, in act one Maengket Makamberu, the ends is the gratitude of the paddy cultivation in the harvest time. Second in act two also known as Maengket Rumamba, we can conclude that the ends is to try the new house that the people built in togetherness or also known as...
References: Bernard Spolsky. Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press. 1998.
Diana Boxer, Andrew D. Cohen. Studying Speaking to Inform 2nd Language Learning. Cromwell Press Ltd. 2004
Richard Bauman,Joel Sherzer. Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking. Cambridge University Press. 1996
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