THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Many studies on the academic achievements of Mangyans prove to be so beneficial to many enthusiasts concerned with indigenous people’s development. A critical look on the levels of school attitudes and self–esteem of Buhid Mangyan pupils in Mirayan, Buong Lupa and Pakpaklawin Elementary Schools serves as a springboard in drawing deeper implication how these potential variables actually impact on their academic performance as priority learners in the school. Based on the actual observation of the researcher, the increasing number of Buhid Mangyan enrollees in the schools for the last five years positively indicates their improved appreciation of formal education and trainings as a capital means to enrich their social, economic and cultural conditions. Given all the opportunities to develop their innate potentials, the Buhid Mangyan pupils are able to cope with the learning environment they are in; however, a set of many obvious problems as regards to how they will effectively learn and perform are seen. Because most of the pupils in Mirayan, Buong Lupa and Pakpaklawin Elementary Schools reside in far-flung communities, most of them usually report to class late, others cannot simply present themselves in the entire whole day of classes, sometimes they prefer to be absent in the afternoon to help out their parents do some house chores for girls. The male Buhid Mangyans on the other hand, go out to the field to plant, take care and feed their animals and perform other labor intensive household activities like cutting wood for cooking, fetching water to drink and others. These economic factors are potential hindrances why the Buhid Mangyan pupils remain left behind compared with their counterparts among Hanunuo and Alangan groups. The same factors seemingly bear direct impact on the level of attitude of the Buhid Mangyan pupils which they most usually manifest in their behavior towards learning, study habits, preparation of projects readiness to learn and participation in classroom activities. Although they are interested to learn, their ability to respond to the teachers’ instruction appears to be at a dismal level due to hunger, uneasy behavior and timidity. The result indicates that the Buhid Mangyan pupils cannot perform on time their assignments and prepare projects because most of their time is spent for earning a living as their form of support to their parents. The lingering effects of these patterns of behavior results in the low-level esteem they feel at the midst of frustration and discomfort, which in the process, results in the lack of quality time for sensible socialization with various groups of people, thus, a feeling of isolation from the mainstream community leads to dwindling individual morale, and failure to sustainably exhibit respect, pride, indigenization and love of cultural beliefs and traditions they ought to keep up deeply rooted in themselves. In the same manner, the most obvious effect of the state to which they are in is the relatively low extent of academic achievement of the Buhid Mangyan pupils. The foregoing statement implies that the experiences of Buhid Mangyan pupils are certainly unique to themselves being in an environment that induces their patterns of actions and behavior. According to Llyod (2007), whatever ethnic affiliation a certain person belongs to, he has a certain set of value system and behavioral patterns being practiced and adopted. The value system of the family and constituent members plays a big factor in the importance given to education, the value of child labor, gender discrimination that prevent girls from attending school to work and discrimination in pay based on sex or type of work of children. For Connolly (2009), the idea of ethnicity relates to the actual condition of Buhid Mangyan pupils from Mirayan, Buong Lupa and Pakpaklawin Elementary Schools in Gloria District. Ethnicity plays a...
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