Question 1 A.
To answer this question first let me define discrimination after which I will discuss how the various theories address discrimination. What is discrimination?
According to John R. Boatright, the term discrimination describes a large number of wrongful acts in employment, housing, education, medical and other important areas of public life. What is common in all of these situations is that a person is deprived of some benefit or opportunity because of membership in some group toward which there is substantial prejudice. Discrimination: It’s Extent
How do we estimate whether an institution or a set of institutions is practicing discrimination against a certain group? This is done by looking at statistical indicators of how the members of that group are distributed within the institution. A prima facie indication of discrimination exists when a disproportionate number of the members of a certain group hold the less desirable positions within the institutions despite their preferences and abilities. Three kinds of comparisons can provide evidence for such a distribution: (a) Comparisons of the average benefits the institutions bestow on the discriminated group with the average benefits the institutions bestow on other groups. (b) Comparisons of the proportion of the discriminated group found in the lowest levels of the institutions with the proportions of other groups found at those levels. (c) Comparisons of the proportions of that group that holds the more advantageous positions with the proportions of other groups that hold those same positions. Arguments addressing the problem of discrimination: Utility, Rights, and Justice The arguments mustered against discrimination generally fall into three groups: Utilitarian arguments - which claim that discrimination leads to an inefficient use of human resources; Kantian- rights arguments - which claim that discrimination violates basic human rights. Justice arguments - which claim that...
References: BIBLIOGRAPHY Boatright, J. (n.d.). Ethics and the conduct of business.
Hare, R. (n.d.). Could Kant have been a Utilitarian? Retrieved from http://deontology.com/.
J, J. (n.d.). http://www.thesophist.com/philosophy/utilitarianism_vs_kant.html.
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