Ethics notes Chapters 1 E& 2
Morality is over self intrest and even the law. It is an obligation to do or not do certain things. Philosophy- literally means love of wisdom. From the greek word philia meaning love or friendship and sophia means wisdom. Epistemology- the study of knowledge, metaphysics the study of nature of reality, and ethics the study of morality. Aesthetics- the study of values in art and beauty and logic the study of argument and the principles of correct reasoning. Ethics- from Greek word ethos, meaning character.
Morality- Latin word moralis, meaning customs or manners.
Amoral- having no moral sense or being indifference to right and wrong. There are two major approaches to the study of morality. The first is scientific ,or descriptive and The second major approach to the study of morality is called the philosophical approach, and it consists of two parts
There are two areas of study in philosophy that deal with val- ues and value judgments in human affairs. The first is ethics, or the study of morality— what is good, bad, right, or wrong in a
sense. The second is aesthetics, or the study
of values in art or beauty—what is good, bad, right, or wrong in art and what constitutes the beautiful and the nonbeautiful in our lives. T
VALUES AS BOTH SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE—A SYNTHESIS.
It would seem that at least some values reside outside of human beings, even though perhaps many more are dependent on conscious human beings, who are able to value things
How we get morality- by observing how morality develops and changes in human societies, one can see that it has arisen largely from human needs and desires and that it is based upon human emotions and reason. However, in order for customs and traditions to be effective and continuously applicable to the members of a society, they must be critically analyzed, tested, and evaluated, and this is where reflective morality comes in. the revered Greek philosopher Socrates (470?–399B.C.) said, “The unexamined life is not worth living.” For morality, a corollary might be, “The unexamined custom or tradition is not worth living by.”
A good example of reflective morality is an examination of the aforementioned Ten Commandments. The phrase unjust law can serve as a starting point for understanding that laws can be immoral. We also have “shysters,” or crooked lawyers, who are considered unethical within their own profession.
The law provides a series of public statements—a legal code, or system of do’s and don’ts—to guide humans in their behavior and to protect them from doing harm to persons and property. Some laws have less moral import than others, but the relationship between law and morality is not entirely reciprocal. What is moral is not necessarily legal and vice versa. That is, you can have morally unjust laws, as mentioned earlier. Also, certain human actions may be considered perfectly legal but be morally questionable. Again, as Michael Scriven has stated, “Religion can provide a psychological but not a logical foundation for morality.”
KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
In the 1970s, Harvard’s Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) advanced, what many consider to be, the most important theory of moral development in the twentieth century. His typography, influenced by the work of Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980), sets up three distinct levels of moral thinking: the preconventional, conventional, and post conventional; autonomous; or principled levels. Each level is arranged in two stages which are “structured wholes” or organized systems of thought that give rational consistency to moral judgments. Kohlberg was concerned about the expanding knowledge of cultural values and the implications of this knowledge in support of the position of ethical relativity. Although he acknowledged that values and their specific content vary from culture to culture, nevertheless, he believed that there exists a universal...
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