Abstract: This article deals with the chemical composition of essential oil from the fruits of Solanum erianthum, a species extensively used in traditional medicine. The essential oil from fruits was extracted by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The yield of essential oil based on the dry weight of the plant was 0.05 % (v/w). Twenty two compounds accounting for 99.2 % of the total oil were identified. The main compounds were 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-, methyl ester (14.3 %), Cedran-diol, 8s, 14- (13.2 %), Caryophyllene (11.8 %). Sesquiterpenes were the main group of compounds. Sesquiterpenes and its derivatives are used as anti cancer, immunosuppressive and anti inflammatory agents.
Key words: Solanum erianthum, hydrodistillation, 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester, Cedran-diol, 8s, 14-, Caryophyllene, Sesquiterpenes.
The Solanaceae are known to be a rich source
of active secondary metabolites. The genus
Solanum is the largest taxa comprising more than
1500 species, which yield a whole variety of
steroidal saponins and glycoalkaloids of interest
from ecological and human health view points.
Numerous species of Solanum are known to
posses a number of biological activities including
antimycotic, antiviral, molluscicidal, antimalarial,
teratogenic and cytotoxic properties 1-5.
Solanum erianthum is commonly found
scattered in sunny or slightly shaded places, in
brushwood, roadsides, field edges, on waste
ground and in forest edges and is known to be
useful .The leaves are considered to be very
effective at ridding the body of impurities through
the urine and are used to treat Leucorrhea. The
leaves are also used to induce abortion, while a
poultice made from crushed leaves is used to treat
hemorrhoids and scrofula. Heated leaves are
applied to the forehead as an analgesic for
headaches and a leaf decoction is used for vertigo.
A root decoction is used to treat dysentery, fever,
diarrhea, digestive problems, and violent body
pains. The root bark is used as an antiinflammatory and to treat arthritis. In West Africa, a decoction made from the leaves is used to treat
leprosy, sexually-transmitted diseases, and
malaria due to its laxative and diuretic effects.
Steroidal alkaloids found in the plant, such as
solasodine, are used by the pharmaceutical
industry as precursors for the manufacture of
synthetic steroids 6-10.
Many studies have reported the chemical
composition of the essential oils from several
Solanum species viz, S. erianthum leaves 11, S.
hypomalacophyllum fruits 12 , and S. pseudo
capsicum fruits 13. The essential oil obtained from
the fresh leaves of S. erianthum has yielded
seventeen compounds 11. However no such studies were conducted in the fruits. In the view of this the present study focuses on the extraction
and analysis of the chemical composition of
essential oil from the fruits of S. erianthum.
Materials and methods
Extraction of the essential oil
About 200g of air dried and powdered fruit
sample was used for hydrodistillation for 6h using
a Clevenger-type apparatus. The hydrodistillation
was repeated several times and the essential oil
was pooled and stored in air tight vials at 4°C
until analyzed. The oil was subjected to GC-MS
Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry
The GC-MS analysis was performed on a
combined GC-MS instrument (Agilent 6890N GC
with 5975 inert MSD) using DB-5 fused silica
gel capillary column (30 m length, 0.25 mm
diameter, 0.25 μm film thickness). An aliquot of
1 μL oil was injected into the column using 10:1
split injection, whose temperature was set at 280º
C. The GC program was initiated by a column
temperature set at 70°C for 2 min. at a rate of 4°C
per minute, increased to 250°C at a rate of 4°C
per minute, with a second ramp at 4°C per minute,
increased to a...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document