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Republic of Turkey Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Motto:  "Egemenlik, kayıtsız şartsız Milletindir" (Turkish) "Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the Nation" Anthem: "İstiklal Marşı" (English: "Independence March")
Ankara  39°55′N 32°50′E Largest city Istanbul  41°1′N 28°57′E Turkish • • •
Official languages Ethnic groups ( )
70–75% Turks 18% Kurds 7–12% others
Demonym Government - President - Prime Minister - Speaker of the Parliament - President of the Constitutional Court
Turkish Unitary parliamentary republic Abdullah Gül Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Cemil Çiçek Haşim Kılıç
Legislature Grand National Assembly
Succession to the Ottoman Empire - Treaty of Lausanne - Declaration of Republic Area - Total 783,562 km2 (37th) 302,535 sq mi 1.3 Population - 2013 estimate - Density 75,627,384 2
24 July 1923 29 October 1923
- Water (%)
97/km (108th) 239.8/sq mi 2012 estimate $1.306 trillion $17,279  
GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini
2012 estimate $794.468 billion (17th) $10,609 (62nd) 39.0 medium · 58th 0.722 high · 90th Currency Time zone Turkish lira (TRY) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) dd/mm/yyyy (AD) right 90 TR .tr a
- Summer (DST) Date format Drives on the Calling code ISO 3166 code Internet TLD a.
The Turkish lira (Türk Lirası, TL) replaced the Turkish new lira on 1 January 2009.
Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey ( Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Wikipedia:Media helpFile:Tur-Türkiye_Cumhuriyeti.ogg), is a transcontinental country, located mostly on Anatolia in Western Asia and on East Thrace in Southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean Sea is to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia. Turkey's location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia makes it a country of significant geostrategic importance.
Turkey The country's official language is Turkish, a Turkic language, which is spoken by approximately 85% of the population as mother tongue. The most numerous ethnic group is the Turks, who constitute between 70% and 75% of the population according to The World Factbook. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority and, according to the same source, number around 18% of the population while other ethnic minorities are estimated to be at 7–12%. The vast majority of the population is Muslim. The area now called Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic, including various Ancient Anatolian civilizations and Thracian peoples. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was Hellenized, which continued with the Roman rule and the transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, starting the process of Turkification, which was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, upon which it disintegrated into several small Turkish beyliks. Starting from the late 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World...
History • Findley, Carter Vaughn (2004)
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