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Topics: Islam, Qur'an, Muhammad Pages: 14 (4977 words) Published: April 4, 2013
Kafir
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This article is about the Islamic religious term. For the pejorative racial slur in South Africa, see Kaffir (racial term). For the song "Kafir!" by Nile, see Those Whom the Gods Detest. For the cultured milk product, see Kefir. "Kafr" and "Kufr" redirect here. For the radio station, see KAFR. For the 2007 album by The Rebel, see Kufr (album). | This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2012) | This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (July 2012) |

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Kafir (Arabic: كافر‎ kāfir, plural كفّار kuffār) is an Arabic term used in an Islamic doctrinal sense, usually translated as "unbeliever," "disbeliever," or "infidel." The term refers to a person who rejects God or who hides, denies, or covers the "truth." Contents * 1 Etymology * 2 Use of Kafir in the Qur'an * 3 Development of Kafir in the Qur'an * 4 Types of disbelief * 5 Muslim and Non-Muslim relations regarding Kafir * 5.1 Historical Relations between Muslims and Non-Muslims * 5.2 Kafir and Jihad * 5.3 New Discourse on Kafir in the American Blogosphere * 6 Kafir in the Afterlife * 7 Use outside Islam * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links| Etymology

The word kāfir is the active participle of the root K-F-R "to cover". As a pre-Islamic term it described farmers burying seeds in the ground, covering them with soil while planting.[1] Thus, the word kāfir implies the meaning a person who hides or covers." According to Oxford Dictionary of Islam the word 'Kafir' means: 'Unbeliever. First applied to Meccans who refused submission to Islam, the term implies an active rejection of divine revelation. In Islamic parlance, a kāfir is a word used to describe a person who rejects Islamic faith, i.e. "hides or covers [viz., the truth]."'[2] "Kafara," which shares the Arabic root K-F-R with "kafir," means to "disbelieve," and also to be "thankless," "ungrateful," "disown," or "deny." [3] The Hebrew words, "kipper," and "kofer", share the same root as "kafir" כִּפֵּר, or K-F-R. "Kipper" has many meanings including, to "atone for," "cover," "purge," or "represent" or "transfer." The last two meanings involve, "kofer" which mean "ransom." "Kipper" and "kofer" are mostly likely used together in the Jewish faith to indicate God's transfer of guilt from innocent parties using guilty parties as "ransom".[4] In a number of tribes located South of Natal in South Africa, the word "kafir" is used...

References: 4. ^ Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik, ed. (2007). "Kipper." Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 180–183.
5. ^ Kidd, Dudley (1925). The Essential Kafir. New York: The MacMillan Company. pp. v.
8. ^ Yusuf Ali, Abdullah (1987). The Holy Qur 'an: Text, Translation, and Commentary. Elmhurst, New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an, Inc..
9. ^ Waldman, Marilyn (Jul. - Sep. 1968). "The Development of the Concept of Kufr in the Qur 'an". Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (3): 442–455. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
11. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 50:24.
12. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 16:83.
13. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 27:14.
14. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 4:145.
15. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 47:8–9.
16. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 9:65–66.
17. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 18:57.
18. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 42:8.
19. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse 16:116.
20. ^ Ruthven, Malise (April 2002). "The Eleventh of September and the Sudanese mahdiya in the Context of Ibn Khaldun 's Theory of Islamic History". International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) 78 (2): 344.
21. ^ Ruthven, Malise (April 2002). "The Eleventh of September and the Sudanese mahdiya in the Context of Ibn Khaldun 's Theory of Islamic History". International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) 78 (2): 345.
23. ^ Kalin, Ibrahim (Autumn 2005). "Islam and Peace: A Survey of the Sources of Peace in the Islamic Tradition". Islamic Studies 44 (3): 357.
24. ^ Kalin, Ibrahim (Autumn 2005). "Islam and Peace: A Survey of the Sources of Peace in the Islamic Tradition". Islamic Studies 44 (3): 359.
26. ^ Ghosh, A. (1983). The Koran and the kafir: Islam and the Infidel: all that an infidel needs to know about the Koran but is embarrassed to ask. Houston: A. Ghosh. pp. 29.
28. ^ Taji-Farouki, Suha (October 2000). "Islamists and the Threat of Jihad: Hizb al-Tahrir and al-Muhajiroun on Israel and the Jews". Middle Eastern Studies 36 (4): 26.
29. ^ Taji-Farouki, Suha (October 2000). "Islamists and the Threat of Jihad: Hizb al-Tahrir and al-Muhajiroun on Israel and the Jews". Middle Eastern Studies 36 (4): 26.
32. ^ Sherman, Jackson (2002). "Jihad and the Modern World". Journal of Islamic Law and Culture.
33. ^ Kalin, Ibrahim (Autumn 2005). "Islam and Peace: A Survey of the Sources of Peace in Islamic Tradition". Islamic Studies 44 (3): 327–362.
36. ^ Martin, R.C. (2004). "Death". Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World 1: 175–176.
37. ^ Martin, R.C. (2004). "Jahannam". Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World 1: 370.
38. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse xlviii:78.
39. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse viii:38.
40. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse xiv:3.
41. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse ix:73–78.
43. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse xvi:22–25.
44. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. verse xxiv:40: Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc..
45. ^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (2001). The Qur 'an. Tahrike Tarsile Qur 'an Inc.. pp. verse xvi:27–29.
46. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 422. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1, 9780816054541.
52. ^ "BARNATO A SUICIDE; The Kafir King Leaps Overboard....". New York Times. 1897. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
53. ^ "KAFIR BAND IN JAIL AND MIGHTY GLAD, TOO". New York Times. 1905-10-18. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
58. ^ Kidd, Dudley (1925). The Essential Kafir. New York: The MacMillan Company. pp. v.
59. ^ Theal, Georg McCall (1970). Kaffir (Xhosa) Folk-Lore: A Selection from the Traditional Tales Current among the People Living on the Eastern Border of the Cape Colony with Copious Explanatory Notes. Westport, CT: Negro Universities.
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