Module 2 Foundation Counselling Skills
Diploma in Clinical & Pastoral Counselling Skills (500N) Foundation Module Andrea Trueman
Methodical Rationale Essay – Grief and Bereavement Counselling Models Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse grief counselling models. Highlight strengths and weaknesses regarding their use with my own clients. My vocational area is education which is the setting for my client base. I will discuss examples of client interaction, preferred grief counselling models and how to adapt their principles into Egan’s helping framework. I will reflect on how my personal development had been enhanced as a result.
Grief Counselling Models
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross developed a five stage grief model based on the following principles; denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Originating through work with terminally sick clients the model is widely regarded as an influential benchmark for all grief work. The main principles are also adaptable to other major forms of loss, e.g. divorce, rejection, addiction, incarceration and injury. This model was criticised due to perceived lack of fluidity and individuality and explored on various websites including referenced to this by (Gray, 2014). Kubler-Ross’ and her evolving theories prove that her aim was not to create an explicitly linear process. She indicated that the model was not intended to be the final word on grief and was certainly not a complete study on dying. The model was well received by some medical staff and hospice workers and less so by scientific peers. Kubler-Ross evolved her theory with regards to using cycles as well as stages producing a more adaptable model (Kubler-Ross, 1969). In this format I find it comparable to the teaching and learning cycle founded by theorist Klob both of whom I can relate to from an educational perspective (Kubler Ross, 1969). Kolb gave us an insight into learning, explaining that the learning cycle he produced can begin at any one of the four points and that it should be used as a framework base and not a definitive set of instructions or expectations (Tennant, 1997).
Murray Parkes developed a cognitive grief model made up of four phases of mourning, consisting of; shock and numbness, searching and pining, disorganisation and despair and reorganising. The final stage of this model encourages clients to reorganise and move forward towards ending grief; however this approach has been criticised due to the use of detachment to end the process, and takes major influence from Freud and detachment theories. It is suggested it takes a passive approach where clients could lack commitment therefore hindering the completion of each phase in the model as intended by Murray Parkes. He identifies antecedent factors within grief work by exploring previous experiences that may influence current grief. There is consideration of concurrent factors such as age and gender of the deceased and the bereaved, followed by subsequent factors taking into account future support and any further losses that the client may endure. This is a vital part of this theory and I feel gives it validity regarding catering to individual needs (Hoy, 2013). Murray Parkes takes a complex approach to grief work with a vast amount of information to consider and remember. From my perspective as a new practitioner, trying to remember all aspects of this model may prove to be difficult and hinder ability to activity listen to the client, robbing them of my full attention. The model may work better for me broken down into relevant sections rather than used explicitly.
J. William Worden has produced a four task model which incorporates mediating factors catering to individual grief situations. Worden’s tasks involve accepting death, processing and working through the pain, adjusting to a new life without the deceased in the physical sense...
References: 3. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, M.D. On Death and dying, New York, Scribner, 1969, p 257 Mark Tennant, Psychology & Adult Learning, New York Routledge, 1997 p91 (Kindle Edition)
5. William Worden, Grief counselling and grief therapy, 4th Edition, New York, Travistock, 1983, p 50-51
7. Gerard Egan, The Skilled helper, 9th Edition, London, USA, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, 2010, 64
16. J. William Worden, Grief counselling and grief therapy, 4th Edition, New York, Travistock, 1983, p 66
20. Carl Rogers & H. Jerome Freiberg, Freedom to Learn, 3rd Edition, New York, Merrill, 1993, p28-32
22. Gerard Egan, The Skilled helper, 9th Edition, London, USA, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, 2010, p6
24. J. William Worden, Grief counselling and grief therapy, 4th Edition, New York, Travistock, 1983, p 175
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