THEORIES OF PERSONALITY – SUMMARY&EVALUATION
Theory Presented: Freudian psychoanalytic theory of personality
Brief Statement of the core message of the theory along with key theorists: ‘Sigmund Freud was the pioneer of this theory of personality. He emphasized more on unconscious motives and childhood experiences as a path of an individual personality. According to him, there are three levels of consciousness i.e. conscious, pre-conscious and unconscious in an association to processes of mind. Unconscious represents the greatest component of mind which consist of instinct(s) that determines our conscious action, behavior and thoughts, and mostly negative or traumatic memories of childhood. Preconscious is the memories and thought(s) which are not present in out conscious thinking but can be willingly bought into awareness. Conscious is given a small section in our mind. It is awareness of current thought(s), behavior, perception(s) and sensation(s). Freud considered id, ego and superego as important aspect of personality. Id is unconscious element of personality; its operation is through principle of pleasure which seeks instant satisfaction of primal need(s), sexual desire(s) and aggressive impulse(s). Ego is operated according to principle of reality; it’s liable for the endurance and continuance of human being. It can differentiate among what’s going on in the mind and what subsist in reality as an exterior world. When the desire(s) of Id is not available in exterior world the ego tends to develop defense mechanism to delay the fulfillment. Superego is operated according to principle of idealistic and moralistic, it contains the value(s) and notion(s) of culture and family in which an individual develops. It facilitates to control impulses of Id by directing energy towards inhibiting id’s expression of sexual and aggressive instincts. Freud believed that individual are driven by two instinctual forces i.e. life and death known as libido. He developed five focal areas of child’s libidinal energy which is considered as main stages in psychological development. It emphasizes on different part of the body. If each stage has been resolved successfully it leads to an outcome of healthy personality in adulthood. If not, the individual may suffer from fixation at a specific point of development. This was considered as an enduring contribution to child and life-span developmental psychology’ (Pennington, 2003).
SIMPLE Table or Figure designed by the student presenting the key components of the theory:
Levels of consciousness and structure of personality with its role in each level and types of ego defense mechanism.
Five Stages of Psychosexual development
SHORT Evaluation of the theory as a model for understanding individual differences. ‘Freud had a well- known stature of contentious all over the world due to his notion and theories. Being the foremost, he provided theories of individual behavior(s) and personality. Psychologist(s) in past have proposed their theories on the groundwork laid by Freud. But still his framework and theory has been criticized as it was considered unscientific as most of the theory originated from his memory, believed that individual(s) are aggressive, sexually motivated and incapable of dealing with their own psychological problems and believed in the phenomena that there are no accidents in an individual behavior and due to emphasizing on unconscious forces and most of his theories focused on male gender and women’s were considered inferior. Hypothesis of the theory produced were not verifiable such as how would you know the existence of unconscious if you are not aware of it. Many psychologist(s) disagreed with Freud’s focus on instinctual base of personality at the cost of significant influences of social and culture and infantile sexuality. The only part of his theory which attracted and...
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