Essay Paper

Topics: Photon, General relativity, Energy Pages: 183 (165658 words) Published: March 26, 2013

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  The Universe is Only Spacetime 

Particles, Fields and Forces  Derived from the Simplest   Starting Assumption      John A. Macken  Santa Rosa, California     
Original Draft – February 2010  Revision 7.0 – January 2013 

©2010, 2012 


Dedication: I dedicate this book to my wife, Enid, who has encouraged me and tolerated my idiosyncrasies over the years.      

Acknowledgments: I wish to thank my friend, Dr. Nikolai Yatsenko, for volunteering to spend many hours teaching me aspects of quantum mechanics and general relativity. During these lessons I began the first steps of formulating a conceptually understandable model of the universe. Also Dr. Chris Ray has provided helpful comments on the text. Finally, I would like to thank Francis William Browne for editing the book.                          



Table of Contents
1 Confined Light Has Inertia 1-1 •  Light  in  a  Reflecting  Box    •  Confined  Black  Body  Radiation    •  de  Broglie  Waves    •  8  Particle‐like Properties of a Confined Photon

2 Definitions and Concepts from General Relativity 2-1                              •  Schwarzschild  Solution    •  Definition  of  Gravitational  Gamma  Г    •  Schwarzschild  Coordinate System  • Coordinate Speed of Light  • Shapiro Experiment  • Gravity Increases  Volume  • Connection Between the Rate of Time and Volume  3 Gravitational Transformations of the Units of Physics 3-1                        Why Are the Laws of Physics Unchanged When the Rate of Time Changes?  • Normalized  Coordinate  System    •  Length  and  Time  Transformations  •  Transformations  Required  to  Preserve the Laws of Physics  • Insights From the Transformations 4 Assumptions 4-1 •  This  Book’s  Basic  Assumption    •  QM  Model  of  Spacetime    •  GR  Model  of  Spacetime    •  Dipole  Waves  in  Spacetime    •  Planck  Length/Time  Limitation  On  Dipole  Waves    •  Impedance  of  Spacetime  • 5 Wave‐Amplitude  Equations    •  Bulk  Modulus  of  Spacetime    •  The Single Fundamental Force   5 Spacetime Particle Model 5-1 • Superfluid Properties of Vacuum Energy •  Spacetime  Vortex  •  Particle  Design  Criteria    •  Inertia  from  Confined  Energy  •  The  Rotar  Model  of  a  Particle    •  Quantum  Radius  and  Quantum Volume of a Rotar  • Rotating Grav Field  • Analysis of Lobes   • Strain Amplitude  Hβ    • Soliton Condition   6 Analysis of the Particle Model 6-1 • Particle Size Analysis • Rotar Energy Test  • Rotar’s Angular Momentum Test   • Quantum  Amplitude  Equalities    •  Circulating  Power  • Rotar’s  Theoretical  Maximum  Force  Strong  Force   • Electromagnetic Force at Distance Rq   • Gravity   • Rotar’s Gravitational Force at  Distance Rq  • Weakness of Gravity  • Force – Amplitude Relationship   • The 4 Forces Are   Intimately Connected   • Rotar’s Inertia   • Higgs Field Not Needed 7 Virtual Particles, Vacuum Energy and Unity 7-1 •  Virtual  Particle  Pairs    •  Vacuum  Energy    •  Harmonic  Oscillators  in  Spacetime    •  Energy  Density of Vacuum Energy  • Energy Density Equals Pressure  • Bulk Modulus of Spacetime   • Vacuum Energy Is a Superfluid  • Stability of Particles Made of Waves • Vacuum Energy  Stabilization of a Rotar  • Minimum Required Energy Density  • Maximum Attracting Force   • Asymptotic Freedom  • Rotation of Molecules  • Unity Hypothesis  • Entanglement‐Unity  Connection


8 Analysis of Gravitational Attraction 8-1 • Nonlinear Effects of Waves in Spacetime  • Newtonian Gravitational Equation Derivation   •  Connection  between  Gravitational  Force  and  Electromagnetic  Force    • Equivalence  of  Acceleration  and  Gravity  Examined    •  Comparison  of  a  Rotar’s    Rotating  Grav  Field  and  Gravitational  Acceleration  •  Energy  Density  in  the  Rotating  Grav  Field    •  Gravitational  Energy Storage  9...
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