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Essay on Tobacco
Topics: Tobacco, Smoking, Nicotine, Tobacco industry / Pages: 6 (1362 words) / Published: Feb 18th, 2013

Today, cigarettes kill more people than alcohol, AIDS, car accidents, drugs, murder and suicide combined. Tobacco consumption has existed for many centuries, since the first Native American to the Spanish conquerors and it has very quickly become global. 100 billion cigarettes are smoked each year and this causes the death of 5 millions people a year. Tobacco companies want to give the impression that they look like all major companies: first, they act responsibly and, secondly, they worry about satisfying their customers and shareholders. But the tobacco industry manipulate people, this industry like any other, is design only to increase profits. Smoking has an influence on society : on one hand it helps people to feel good, and to relax but on the other hand, smoking has a negative impact on health by causing diseases to smokers and passive smokers and these bad habits help to enrich tobacco companies .

Tobacco is a way to communicate and create moments of conviviality. Smoking causes pleasurable sensations and that lead quickly to the smoking addiction. Some places, people or circumstances tempt to smoke. The behavioral dependency is illustrated then by a kind of reflex : smokers lights a cigarette by automatism and not by need. A cigarette is also a way to have fun, make easier to manage your stress and anxiety, to overcome his emotions, to stimulate or to concentrate. Tobacco smoke contains over 4000 chemicals and tobacco is responsible for 90-95% of lung cancers but also cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, pancreas, and bladder. (htt12)
The major tobacco companies are Altria (Marlboro, Philip Morris, Chesterfield ...), British American Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International. The addictive nature of tobacco consumption, make no doubt any longer. For two years, even the tobacco industry admit it.
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However, tobacco’s company still trying to downplay the importance of nicotine addiction, by comparing it to addiction to caffeine or even to chocolate. It has been shown recently that the tobacco company had recruited scientists and university professors who have published false articles on non-harmfulness of tobacco and passive smoking. (Philip Morris International, Inc. SWOT Analysis, 2011)
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The tobacco companies are trying to buy a good image through marketing strategies. The cigarette companies subsidize schools and put advertising slogans inside. For example you can see some of these schools in China, anti-smoking activists say it sends the wrong message to young people, but in some poor rural areas there would be no alternative to access to education. (Smoking gun: Chinese tobacco companies sponsor primary schools , 2011) To make a right impression, the tobacco industry conducts prevention campaigns especially among young people, indeed Altria has created the program « Think. Don’t smoke », and the British American Tobacco has made « Be cool, be yourself », but studies have shown that such messages had no impact and could even be counterproductive, reinforcing the appeal of tobacco to the young people. (Malone, McCandless, & Yerger, 2012)
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The objective of the tobacco industry is to access to the young people to conduct market research, standardize marks and prevent the development of effective anti-smoking campaigns. Tobacco companies want to sponsor anti-smoking campaigns to conduct market research on a large scale on the behaviour of teenagers toward smoking it is also a good way to make advertising. It has been proved that the marketing of tobacco companies also target women, using powerful images to attract them : images of freedom, emancipation, equality, seduction, subtlety / slimming or health, energy and the evocation of pleasant moments. Another strategy is to sponsor sporting events indeed tobacco brands link their products to health and performance of the athletes, it 's a way to reach large numbers of young people by sponsoring events or teams.(Palazzo & Richter, 2005) Thanks to this they can also sell promotional items: tobacco companies put their logo on t-shirts, caps, and other products which please the young people. It 's a way to escape the ban on advertising, however the person who wears these products is transformed into an advertising hoarding. Great celebrities (Pompidou, Sartre, Serge Gainsbourg...), in spite of themselves, urging the population to consume tobacco by the simple fact that they do the same thing. Their influences offers positive images of smoking through their charisma. The tobbaco has understood it well, for example Sylvester Stallone has agreed to be paid by Brown and Williamson to smoke in movies such as Rambo and Rocky IV. In a letter he wrote he has been shows that he has been paid 500,000 dollars by the company. (htt12)
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Some people believe that the tobacco’s companies only bring death however it must be also recognized that the smoker has his free will. If he lights a cigarette, it is knowingly, because the risks are widely known by the public. Tobacco companies know that most adult smokers began smoking as teenagers. And when the media (movies, music videos, television) value the tobacco consumption, they communicate the powerful message that smoking is a legitimate activity, even be desirable to be consider as a cool person.The majority of adult smokers begin during adolescence, so it is important to target them as soon as possible through advertising and promotions. (Larry, n.d.)
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Governments spend between 50$ and 73$ billion per year to cover medical expenses related to the 430,000 deaths caused by cigarettes. While it is true that the government invest and do much to reduce the tobbaco consumption it can also be contradictory because in some countries (Germany, United State ...) political parties are funded by the tobacco industry. However in developing countries governments must do more prevention especially among young smokers because babies are indeed a social phenomenon in Indonesia, where 25% of children aged 3 to 15 have ever smoked. More and more cities, states and countries are creating policies and legislation promoting smoke-free area. This is an important measure which has reduced passive smoking and protect non-smokers. In fact, Passive smoking kills around the world, millions of people are exposed to tobacco smoke at home, at work and in public places.The price increase is a part of the anti-tobacco measures, indeed cigarette prices continue to rise to discourage smoking. Scientists and tabacologues try to find solutions too, they have created new "gadgets" such as the electronic cigarette which allows smokers to satisfy a level of nicotine as it contains a low dose and looks like a regular cigarette. (Palazzo & Richter, 2005) (Jiang & Ling, 2011)
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« The believing we do something when we do nothing is the first illusion of tobacco »(Waldo Emerso Ralph, n.d.) To conclude, world production of tobacco is close to 8 million tonnes, despite the prevention campaign and the harsh measure anti-tobacco the cigarette consumption is increasing and these companies remain among the most profitable in the world. Smoking causes a real physical, psychological and behavioral addiction and causes cancer and death. Tobacco companies are like any business, they want to increase their profit. That’s why these society opted for marketing strategies that are widely criticized nevertheless they are also invested in good causes to regild their image. The fight against smoking is a public health priority. Cigarette smoking is a real problem of state do not start !

REFERENCES
Malone, R. E., McCandless, P. M., & Yerger, V. B. (2012). Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press. American Journal of Public Healt , 102 (4), 739 - 750.
Jiang, N., & Ling, P. M. (2011). Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States. American Journal of Public Health , 101 (10), 1942-1954.
Palazzo, G., & Richter, U. (2005). CSR Business as Usual? The Case of the Tobacco Industry. Journal of Business Ethics , 61 (4), 387 - 401.
Larry, B. (n.d.). Strategies of Tobacco Industry. Retrieved from Tobacco.org: file:///Users/inesaouididi/Desktop/STRATEGIES%20OF%20THE%20TOBACCO%20INDUSTRY.webarchive
Smoking gun: Chinese tobacco companies sponsor primary schools . (2011, September 23). Retrieved from The Sydney Morning Herald: http://www.smh.com.au/world/smoking-gun-chinese-tobacco-companies-sponsor-primary-schools-20110922-1kn9u.html
(2011). Philip Morris International, Inc. SWOT Analysis. London: Datamonitor Plc.
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.anti-smoking.org/

References: Malone, R. E., McCandless, P. M., & Yerger, V. B. (2012). Quid Pro Quo: Tobacco Companies and the Black Press. American Journal of Public Healt , 102 (4), 739 - 750. Jiang, N., & Ling, P. M. (2011). Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States. American Journal of Public Health , 101 (10), 1942-1954. Palazzo, G., & Richter, U. (2005). CSR Business as Usual? The Case of the Tobacco Industry. Journal of Business Ethics , 61 (4), 387 - 401. Larry, B. (n.d.). Strategies of Tobacco Industry. Retrieved from Tobacco.org: file:///Users/inesaouididi/Desktop/STRATEGIES%20OF%20THE%20TOBACCO%20INDUSTRY.webarchive Smoking gun: Chinese tobacco companies sponsor primary schools . (2011, September 23). Retrieved from The Sydney Morning Herald: http://www.smh.com.au/world/smoking-gun-chinese-tobacco-companies-sponsor-primary-schools-20110922-1kn9u.html (2011). Philip Morris International, Inc. SWOT Analysis. London: Datamonitor Plc. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.anti-smoking.org/

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