essay 2 year 2

Topics: Sigmund Freud, Psychosexual development, Phallic stage Pages: 7 (2457 words) Published: January 19, 2015
 During this essay the writer will evaluate the extent to which Freud’s theory of psychosexual development can help to understand a client’s presenting issue. Further on, the writer will describe Freud’s psychosexual theory and relationship with connection to adult neurotic behaviour. Lastly, the writer of this essay will look at the criticism around Freud’s theory.  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) who was brought up in a Jewish family had lived in Austria and was notably known as the founding father of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories. The thesis behind the two theories mentioned previously, were based upon the belief of the influence experienced by a person’s internal drives of an individual’s emotions towards their behaviour. This would then be where Freud’s focus and contribution of his study of the psychology of human behaviour developed from his concept of the ‘dynamic unconscious’. Freud felt that within a person’s unconscious mind there was a great drive for a person to seek pleasure, he referred this as the ‘libido’(Module 2 ; Roth, 2001). In Freud’s theory he divided the mind, known as the PSYCHE, Freud divided this in to three parts. The first part would be referred as the unconscious; second part known as the preconscious and lastly the conscious.  However these can be referred by another terminology which is; the ID, EGO and the SUPEREGO (Module, 2). The ID can be characterised as the part where the mental processing strives the initiation of a person’s behaviour, the end result would be the satisfaction of the human beings needs met. These needs would be to somewhat as similar as to the Maslow Hierarchy – physiological needs, which includes; air, water, food, warmth, shelter, sex etc (Wahba and Bridgewell, 1976). The EGO can be seen whereby it seeks to hold an individual together as a whole, for example the EGO works with the ID. The EGO utilises many different areas of a person’s psychological functions that includes; the memory, the thoughts of an individual and their speaking. Freud’s belief on this was that the EGO was obeying the ‘Reality Principle’ (Roth, 2001) in which Freud meant that the EGO behaves in such a way that is normal to the external world and not violates the SUPEREGO (Module, 2). The SUPEREGO works with corresponding to the demands externally of a person, from society surrounding them. For example, this would be the individual’s fulfilment of their self-actualisation. This can be a result of the idea of their conscience, such as the influential guidance through early exposure in to the world. For example, the parental supervision as the person grows from a child in to an adult (Roth, 2001). The individual is able to know through this guidance right from wrong, what is acceptable and what is not acceptable. A child may incur punishment or rewards as means of recognising what is deemed to be acceptable and unacceptable. Freud recognised the unconscious mind to be the root source of mental energy that persisted in to human behaviour (McLeod, 2008). Freud’s opinion deprived from his personal results from patients participating in hypnosis, when working on the removal of symptoms of hysteria, whilst the patient was in a trance state of mind (Module 2). Where conflict is produced amongst these three components, a form of tension and emotional problems occur for the individual. For a person’s tension to be relieved, the individual may utilise their defence mechanisms to reduce their anxiety on the situation they are in. Freud felt that for a person not to have a defence mechanism they would develop either a mental illness or commit suicide (Roth, 2001). The defence mechanise can be categorised by the following; displacement, rationalisation, reaction development, regression, repression, denial, fixation, idealisation, identification, identification with the aggressor, intolerance of ambiguity, isolation, phobic avoidance and sublimation (Roth, 2001 ; Module, 2). The displacement side...
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