Much research has been conducted looking in to the question of whether or not ESP actually exists, with dream ESP often being focused on in research, where an individual attained information during their sleep which has not come through any of the five recognised senses. Many of the reported cases of ---- of ESP has been deen to take to take place whilst the individuals is in some form of an altered state of consciousness and as dreaming is the most easily accesible altered state of consciousness available to researchers many studies have focused on this.
Sherwood and Roe (2003) reviewed many ESP studies which were conducted after the Maimonides dream ESP research programme in relation to the actual Maimonides studies. These studies asserted the identification of correct target material which had been attempted to send telepathically to a sleeping participant (receiver) in the study. The M studies looked to the selection of a target which was randomly selected from a variety of forgets, usually consisting of art prints, with this being given in a sealed envelope to a sender, who wouild attempt to transmit telepathically this image to the receiver once they were identified as attempting REM sleep. The sender would be locked in a sound-proof room to prevent any cheating. When the receiver came out of REM sleeo they were woken and shown 8-12 pictures and asked to identify their rate of confidence in each picture being the correct target. A target in the top half of these ratings was considered a hit, whilst one in the bottom half was a 'miss'.
Although many differing procedural variations were used during the M studies, results generally proved significant. 'A meta-analysis of 450 M ESP trials found the overall success rate to be 63% with odds of 75million to 1 against achieving such a result by chance' (Radin 1997 in Sherwood and Roe, 2003). However, criticisms of the studies have been raised concerned those concerning those who conducted the...
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