Erik Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
CCBC Owings Mills
Monday, April 7, 2014
Erik Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
Erik Erikson was a “German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings”("Erik Erikson.”). Many of his ideas were influenced by Sigmund Freud; “an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis”("Sigmund Freud.”). Now, Freud believed that our actions were psychosexual “of or involving the psychological aspects of the sexual impulse.” ("Psychosexual - Google Search.”) and Erikson thought our actions were based off of the culture and society we live in, this is considered psychosocial development. They both believed that our developmental stages begin during birth, but Freud was confident that the developmental stages only last for five years, and Erikson believed the stages last until our late adulthood. Trust v. Mistrust
The first stage of his theory is the trust versus mistrust stage, this is where the infant; 0-1/2 years of age, learns wether they should trust or mistrust their surroundings and the people in it, an infant is first introduced to trusting when the caregiver consistently gives them any type of affection, especially when it comes to being fed. The baby trusts that when he/she cries the mother will know that the baby must be hungry, so when the mother complies and feeds them this will only reinforce the babies trust in the other human being . Of course I'm too young to remember this stress-free part of my life, but from personal experience I can relate to this stage of development in my young adult years. When I made the cheer squad in high school we got comfortable with cheering that we thought we knew everything. So after many long and tiring practices of going back and fourth with our coach about the direction of the performances she decided to let us take over the team.So we made our own routine, of course it was harder than we thought and we hardly finished the routine. We didn't trust our coach because we thought we knew what we were getting into, but unfortunately the routine we had was not something the judges were looking for. When we finally decided to let the coach lead the team we went on to have an outstanding season with consistent success. Because we gained a new respect for our coach it allowed us to trust her and the system so we could continue on and be an effective. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
The second stage of development is the autonomy versus shame and doubt phase, the child will learn how to be independent between the ages of 18 months and three years old. When the parent allows the child the freedom to make their own decisions in a stress free environment they will start to develop some sovereignty; you should not allow the child fail too much that they start to feel shamed, but enough to promote their own free will. When i was younger any money i made was given to my parents to ensure that i wouldn't use the money freely. As i got older they allowed me to handle my own finances as to give me the opportunity to be personally accountable for my own things. This is important when raising a child because you want them to continuously rely on their caregivers a little less each year so they can be healthy functioning self governing adults. Initiative vs. Guilt
“Around age three and continuing to age five, children assert themselves more frequently.” (McLeod). The main attribute of this stage is the child initiating relationships with fellow classmates, or any neighboring kids, they will be learning that its okay to be vocal, while also learning self control with their newly found openness. I can recall, around this age specifically, riding in the car with my parents on numerous occasions and just feeling free enough to ask as many questions as i wanted to. There is a system used in elementary school to...
References: Cherry, Kendra. "Intimacy Versus Isolation." About.com Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2014. .
"Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 June 2014. Web. 07 Apr. 2014.
"Erikson 's Stages of Development." Erikson 's Stages of Development. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2014.
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
"Psychosexual - Google Search." Psychosexual - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2014.
"Sigmund Freud." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 May 2014. Web. 05 Apr. 2014.
"Stage 5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion." N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2014. .
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