Ergonomics and the Changing Nature of Work and Environment

Topics: Ergonomics, Repetitive strain injury, Human factors Pages: 40 (13074 words) Published: July 19, 2008
Abstract
The main aim of this study was to obtain an understanding of ergonomics and the changing nature of work and environment.

Aims, objectives and key questions

Aim
To understand the use of ergonomics and how the nature of work is changing with the changing times. Objectives
1 To understand what ergonomics means and its application.
2 To understand why ergonomics is ignored in India
3 To better understand the changing nature of work
Key questions
What is ergonomics and why is it ignored in India?
How is the nature of work and environment changing?

Literature review
The literature review focused on developing an understanding of ergonomics, the different domains and the changing nature of work and environment Research methodology
The main avenue of research was the Internet.
Findings
The findings were tabulated in order to highlight the main issues and methods

Table Of Contents
Page Number 1. Ergonomics……………………………………….5 1.1 History…………………………………….6 1.2 Application………………………………..7

2. Role of an Ergonomist……………………………8 3. Domains of Ergonomics………………………….9 3.1 Physical Ergonomics……………………...9
3.2 Cognitive Ergonomics……………………14
3.3 Organizational Ergonomics………………20
4. Ergonomics and Labor today…………………...24 5. Ergonomics in India…………………………….25 6. Importance of Ergonomics……………………...33 7. Changing nature of work and environment……..34

7.1Introduction……………………………….34
7.2Description………………………………..35
7.3Application………………………………..44
8. Changing nature of work………………………...48 9. Drivers of change………………………………..50 10.Future of work in the US………………………..52

ERGONOMICS

The term “ergonomics” is derived from two Greek words: “ergon”, meaning work and “nomoi”, meaning natural laws. Ergonomists study human capabilities in relationship to work demands. Ergonomics, also known as human factors, is the scientific discipline that seeks to understand and improve human interactions with products, equipment, environments and systems. Drawing upon human biology, psychology, engineering and design, ergonomics aims to develop and apply knowledge and techniques to optimize system performance, whilst protecting the health, safety and well-being of individuals involved. The attention of ergonomics extends across work, leisure and other aspects of our daily lives. Ergonomists contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. Ergonomics comes into everything which involves people. Work systems, sports and leisure, health and safety should all embody ergonomics principles if well designed

History
The term ergonomics (from the Greek words ergon [work] and nomos [natural laws]) first entered the modern lexicon when Wojciech Jastrzębowski used the word in his 1857 article Rys ergonomji czyli nauki o pracy, opartej na prawdach poczerpniętych z Nauki Przyrody Later in the 19th century, Frederick Winslow Taylor pioneered the "Scientific Management" method, which proposed a way to find the optimum method for carrying out a given task. Taylor found that he could, for example, triple the amount of coal that workers were shovelling by incrementally reducing the size and weight of coal shovels until the fastest shovelling rate was reached. Frank and Lilian Gilbreth expanded Taylor's methods in the early 1900s to develop "Time and Motion Studies". They aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions. By applying this approach, the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to 4.5, allowing bricklayers to increase their productivity from 120 to 350 bricks per hour. World War II marked the development of new and complex machines and weaponry, and these...
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