Chapters 11 12 Periodic Table Name __________________ ( )
Date _________ History of the Periodic Table Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev 1834-1907 Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic masses Elements with similar chemical properties fall into the same vertical column Such an arrangement is the Periodic Table The Periodic Table The Periodic Table is a list of elements arranged in order of ______________ _____________ (__________) ____________. Groups The periodic table is divided into eight vertical columns known as Groups. The Groups are numbered I, II, III etc from left to right. Periods The periodic table is divided into seven horizontal rows known as periods. Each period is numbered 1, 2, 3 etc. Transition metals The Periodic Table also has three other blocks of elements, known as the transition elements, the lanthanides and the actinides. The Periodic Trends Metal and Non-metals Bold line divides metals from the non-metals Metals are grouped on the ______________ side of the periodic table. Non-metals are grouped on the _____________ side of the periodic table. Elements located close to the bold line (such as Si and Ge) have properties of a metal and non-metal. They are called _______________ and are used extensively in the semiconductor industry. From left to right across a period, there is a _____________ in ___________ properties and an _______________ in _______________ properties. Across a period, there is also a change in the chemical properties of oxides of the elements. SHAPE MERGEFORMAT Elements in the Period All elements in the same period has the same number of ________________. Elements in period 2 have 2 shells, while elements in period 3 will have 3 shells. The number of outer electrons of elements in the same period _____________ progressively by one across the period from left to right. Elements in a Group The number of outer electrons is the same as the __________________. Elements with similar electronic structure have similar chemical properties, elements in the same group have similar chemical properties. Elements in the same group usually form the same type and number of bonds. Eg Group I elements tend to lose one outer electrons to form ions of the same symbol e.g. Li, Na, K, Rb The ______________ on the ions formed by elements are related to the Group number and number of outer electrons Elements on the left side of the Table lose all outer electrons to form positive ions corresponding to the Group Number Elements on the right side of the Table gain electrons to achieve the noble gas structure, forming negative ions. Group NumberIIIIIIIV, VVIVII0Ionic charge of element123Tend to form covalent compounds-2-1Does not form compoundsExamplesNaMg2Al3CH4, PCl5O2-F-- Elements in the same group also form compounds of same formula. Eg Group II elements form ionic chlorides of the formula BeCl2, MgCl2, CaCl2 etc Eg Group IV elements form covalent compounds of the formula CH4, SiH4, GeH4 etc Trends down a Group In any group, the following trends can be seen as you go down the group The proton number becomes _______________. The atoms of the different elements _____________________ from one element to the next. The properties of the elements in the group become _________________ as the proton number increases. There is also a gradual change in physical properties (eg melting point, boiling point, density) and chemical properties (eg reactivity) properties of elements down the group. Group I metals Alkali metals Physical properties of Alkali Metals Group I metals are ___________ and can be cut by a knife. Trend Down the group, alkali metals become ________________. Alkali metals are _______________________________________________. ElementDensity (g/cm3)Melting point (oC)Lithium0.53180Sodium0.9798Potassium0.8664Rubidium1.539Caesium1.929 Alkali metals have ___________________ and ______________________. (____________________ of Group I metals are...
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