There are many common factors in the education and practice among people in the health, healthcare, and wellness. An example of one of the common factors is the knowledge and use of Anatomy & Physiology within their specialization. In order to work in these types of fields a prospective or practicing professional must have a good grasp of both the anatomy and physiology of the human body. In related fields such as veterinary medicine the professional must have a solid grasp of the anatomy and physiology of many kinds of animals. A central theme of Anatomy and Physiology is that structure dictates function. The structure and location of a certain part of the body will dictate the function of that part. Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body. It deals with the body parts, the relation of body parts to each other, and how these body parts contribute to specific systems within the body and their contribution to the body as a whole. Physiology is the study of the function the body and how the individual parts work together to sustain life. It is difficult to study anatomy without physiology, and even more difficult to study physiology without anatomy. This is explained by the principle of complementarity of structure and function, which states that "what a structure can do depends on its specific form". (Marieb, Hoehn, p.3). You cannot study how the cardiovascular system removes carbon dioxide from the blood and replaces it with oxygen (function), without discussing the structure of the bronchioles in the lungs where the exchange of these gasses takes place. You cannot discuss the function of hearing without discussing the structure of the labyrinth of the ear. Thinking about it in terms of physiology relating to function, a surgeon cannot treat a patient for an anterior gunshot wound to the center of the epigastric region of the abdominal cavity without having mastered both the anatomy and physiology of the liver which is distal of the wound, the stomach which is median in the region, the transverse colon which is inferior within the region, the false ribs of the thoracic cage which are superior in the region, or the vertebrae and spinal cord areas of the thoracic curvature of the spine located deep in the median of the region. The relation of structure and function are extremely important to understand because without them the body could not maintain homeostasis, or the body’s ability to combine the various systems of the body to maintain an internal equilibrium which sustains life. Homeostasis is controlled by a system that sends orders to different parts of the body from a control center that receives messages via receptors and issues directions on how to correct those imbalances via effectors. If something goes wrong it creates an imbalance of homeostasis. Homeostatic balance is so vital to the body that "most disease can be regarded as a result of its disturbance". (Marieb, Hoehn, p. 11). The cells within the body communicate to the receptors of the control center in a language consisting of negative and positive feedback. Negative feedback constitute the vast majority of these messages, and tell the control center that there is either too much of or not enough of a certain stimulus, which has created a negative imbalance. Negative feedback asks the control center to reduce this stimulus to bring the function back into balance. For instance if you start running the control centers receptors will receive negative feedback from the body telling it that they are working hard and not getting enough oxygen and energy. The control center will then send out instructions to the heart to pump faster and the lungs to breath deeper and more frequently to supply the cells with more oxygen and energy. Positive feedback is rarely used and only in specific manners such as contractions during the birth portion of the reproduction process. As the process of delivering the baby the reproductive...
References: Marieb, Elaine N., and Katja Hoehn. Human Anatomy & Physiology. 7th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2007. Print.
Marieb, Elaine N., and Susan J. Mitchell. Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual Main Version. 8th ed. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Print.
Mayo Clinic. "COPD Definition." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 15 Mar. 2011. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/copd/DS00916>.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document