epekto ng makabagong teknolohiya

Topics: Criminology, Sociology, Scientific method Pages: 6 (897 words) Published: October 6, 2013


Cybercrime
27
& Agnew, 2006
).
People rationally choose to participate in criminal
acts;
in order to
prevent these acts from occurring people need to know that consequences will outweigh the benefits. If people believe that the consequences outweigh the benefits t hen they will
freely choose not to participate in the criminal behavior.
On the other hand the positive
school of criminology believes that individuals participate in crime because of forces beyond individual control and relies on the scientific method to prove
it
s theories (Cullen
& Agnew, 2006
).
Individuals should not
be held solely responsible for their actions
because not everyone is rational. Outside factors can play an important part in determining one‟s participation in crime. Now that we have exami ned the two most
dominant schools of criminological theory we can examine how two theories, self -
control and routine activity, have been applied to the study of cybercrime and cybercrime victimization.
Self
-
Control
Theory
One general crime theory that has been applied to the study of cybercrime is self -
control theory. Self
-
control theory was first proposed by Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson in their 1990 publication
A General Theory of Crime
. Self
-
control theory
beli
eves that criminal motivation is rampant, but that people act on this motivation only when they possess low self
-
control
(Cullen & Agnew, 2006)
. This paper will discuss the
basic elements of self
-
control theory, as well as research that has provided eviden ce to
support the validity of this theory. Then this section will review empirical studies that have applied self
-
control
theory
to the stu
dy of cybercrime and cyber victimization
and
will dis
cuss the benefits
of applying this theory to the study of cyberc
rime.
Cybercrime
28
In their book,
A General Theory of Crime
, Travis Hirschi and Michael
Gottfredson describe the major characteristics that define individuals with and without self
-
control (1990). Individual‟s with low self
-
control
are

impulsive, insensitive,
physica
l (as opposed to mental), risk
-
taking, short sighted, and nonverbal, and they will
tend therefore to engage in criminal and analogous acts
.” (Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1990)
People with characteristics of low self
-
control may be more likely to participate in
deviant acts because they want immediate gratification. As compared to individuals who lack self
-
control, individuals with self
-
control are able to delay immediate gratification
and are more likely to be vigilant, emotional, verbal, and long -
term orientat
ed (Hirschi &
Gottfredson, 1990). Individuals who possess characteristics of self -
control may be better
able to appreciate the consequences of participating in
deviant acts and have the control
necessary to delay their gratification. In conclusion, those who lack self
-
control are more
likely to possess characteristics such as impulsivity a
nd short
-
sightedness, that make
crime and its immediate gratification more attractive to them, as compared to those who possess characteristics of high self
-
control such
as being cautious and long
-
term
orientated.
This brings up an important question, does an individual‟s level of self -
control
develop over time or is someone born with one level of self
-
control that remains the same
throughout his or her lifetime
. Accordin
g to Hirschi and Gottfredson individuals are
not
born with one certain level of self
-
control,
rather
they learn self
-
control most often
through their parents (
Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1990
). An individual does not
have only
on
e
level of self
-
control, as they grow older they may develop a different level of self -
control then when they...
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