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Environment Pollution in Bangladesh

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Topics: Pollution, Waste
Introduction:
Environment pollution is a much-talked topic of the present time. Our life is so deeply and invariably related to environment that any pollution of it causes dangers and brings about different disasters. In fact, a sound environment is the precondition of a sound living. However, our environment is being polluted in a number of ways. In Bangladesh, the level of environmental pollution has reached high and it is high time we checked environment from being spoilt.

Environment pollution by business:
Pollution is common phenomenon in Bangladesh. Water, Environment, Air are polluted continuously. Environment pollution is most common in our country. A report of Paribas Odhidoptor shows that “our environment is polluted double in every year”.
All we see around us are the element of environment Air, Water and oil are some of the main element. But they often pose to be a thread to our life, particularly when they get polluted.

Types of pollution: 1. Air pollution by smoke:
Air is being polluted by the smoke and different gases emitted from various sources. Mills, factories, powerhouse, automobiles produce a lot of smoke which contain carbon-di-oxide, carbon-mono-oxide, sulphur oxide, nitrous oxide and other gases. 2. Water pollution by melt wastes:
Water, another important element of the environment is also being polluted in many different ways. Mills and factories, water-vehicles, and human beings throw their waste products and rubbish in the water and thus pollute water. Insanitary latrines, chemical fertilizers and insecticides used in farmlands, drainages and sewerage lines also contribute to further pollution. 3. Soil polluted by waste:
Estimates for solid waste generated in Dhaka city vary from 3,000 to 3,500 tons per day.

Natural resource and environment:
1. Bangladesh is a country of about 147,570 square kilometers, including inland and estuarine water. 6.7% of the country is rivers and inland water bodies. The congruence of the three mighty Himalayan rivers – the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and Meghna drain into the Bay of Bengal and the alluvial deposits carried down mostly by the these mighty rivers for thousands of years have formed Bangladesh. It is the largest delta in the world.

2. Bangladesh lies north of the Tropic of cancer, located between 20034’ N and 26033’ N latitudes and 88001’ E and 94041’ E longitudes. Located in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent, it is bordered by India on the west, north and east, except for a small portion in the south – east by Myanmar. The
Bay of Bengal occupies the entire south.

3. Nearly 50% of the country stands 10 meters above the sea – level. Bangladesh has three types of landscapes: floodplains spread over 80% of the country’s land area, terraces covering 8% and hills dispersed over 12% of the land area of Bangladesh.

4. The three major rivers, the Padma, the Meghna and the Brahmaputra, and about 700 other rivers, distributaries, streams and canals totaled an enormous length of water areas. Rashid (1991) estimated the area to be about 24,000 km Bells, boars, haors1, rivers and canals, floodplains, estuaries etc made up this vast network of wetlands which provide a huge refuge for wildlife, fish and other aquatic lives.

5. The tropical climate has made the country luxuriant in vegetation. The forests of Bangladesh can broadly be classified as: (i) Tropical evergreen or semi-evergreen forest in the eastern districts of Chittagong, Cox's Bazar, Sylhet, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts region collectively known as Hill forest; (ii) Moist or dry deciduous forest also known as Sal (Shorea robusta) forest located mainly in central plains and the freshwater areas in the northeast region; and (iii) Tidal mangrove forests along the coast, the Sundarbans in the southwest of the Khulna and other mangroves in the Chittagong and Noakhali coastal belt.

6. Bangladesh harbors a diverse and extensive fauna and flora. IUCN (2000a) reported 266 species of freshwater fish species and 442 marine species. The fauna, especially the wildlife includes 125 species of mammals, 750 species of birds, 500 species of fishes, 125 species of reptiles and 9 species of amphibian.

Pollution by business in Bangladesh:
Business sectors are most polluting our environment. Environment is polluted by business directly or indirectly. Polluting environment by business----- * Sound pollution * Lack of pure drinking water * Damage of damping system * Global warming * See level raising * Natural calamities * Heavy rainfall * Drought * Breathing problem * Reducing trees * Green house effect * Finishing animals * Raising different type of human dieses.

Effect on environment by business:
1. Bangladesh faces a growing number of multifarious environmental problems. The following are several environmental issues that significantly affect Bangladesh’s economy.

2. Concentration of people in urban growth centers simultaneously increase the concentration of domestic and industrial activities that lead to pollution problem for urban and its surrounding areas. In the rural area, runoff of agrochemicals from agricultural fields deteriorated water quality. It has mostly affected the fisheries sector. However, pollution issues are most acute in urban areas.

3. Water Pollution is mostly concentrated in urban growth centers and industrial belts. Due to lack of adequate regulatory measures and institutional setup for proper monitoring and control, pollutants from municipal, industrial and agricultural waste enter into the inland water system. Major causes of pollution that aggravate water quality are industrial effluents, agrochemical, fecal pollution, spillage and low water flow in dry season

4. Industrial pollution and deteriorating water quality is a growing environmental concern. Treatment of industrial waste and effluents has so far been considered as low priority. Most of the industries in Bangladesh are located along the bank of the main rivers. The most significant industrial growth has been recorded after
1982 especially the development of garments, textile and dying sectors. The industrial sector of Bangladesh can be categorized into 3 major categories based on its input: agro-based industries, non-renewable local resource based industry and imported resource based industries

5. Agro-based Industries: It includes jute, pulp and paper, match, sugar, shrimp salt etc. The main polluter form this category are sugar, pulp and paper and tanneries.

6. Non- renewable local resource based industry: Includes industries based on mineral resources, hard rock, sands, glass, limestone and various types of clays. In this sector, the major polluters are cement and fertilizer factories.

7. Imported resource based industries: This category includes textiles, pharmaceuticals, plastic, petroleum/ refineries, and metal works. Most of these considered as highly pollutant. Table ranks the most polluting industries in Bangladesh.

8. Polluted air is harmful for human health depending on the nature of the pollutant, concentration, duration of exposure and the state of health and age group of the recipient. Polluted air causes respiratory problem, asthma, bronchitis, headache and dizziness, nasal congestion, renal damage etc. Lead pollution has harmful affect on children that is 3 times more at risk than adults. Apart from impact on human health, air pollution has detrimental impact of the ecosystem, vegetation and livestock.

Air pollution is more acute in urban areas than in rural areas. In urban area, the main sources of air pollution are emission of harmful gaseous matters from vehicle, industrial sectors, and construction and open dumping of garbage.

Solid waste:
Estimates for solid waste generated in Dhaka city vary from 3,000 to 3,500 tons per day. They come from households, commercial and industrial establishments and street sweepings. Households generate most of the solid waste, accounting for nearly 45% of the total. Only 42% of the solid waste generated in Dhaka city is estimated to be collected by the municipal authorities. The indiscriminate disposal of solid waste in public places causes serious environmental hazards and health risks. Rotten and decomposed garbage make neighborhoods filthy, foul smelling and unhealthy. Uncontrolled and open dumping also clog the urban drainage system, cause frequent drainage congestion and threaten the contamination of water supply.

Hospital waste:
There are about 250 healthcare centers in Dhaka city that includes hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, dental hospitals etc. But inadequate waste management systems in these healthcare facilities are posing a serious threat to public health as well as to the environment. Disposable syringe, needles, blood- soaked pads, used blood bags and such other materials from more than 98 per cent of the health care are simply thrown in the open dustbins. The disposal of such hazardous portion of wastes from hospitals into public waste disposal system exposes the people to serious health risk.

Hazardous and toxic wastes:
Very limited data is available on the hazardous and toxic wastes in Bangladesh. The top toxic chemicals polluters are the tanneries and leather industry, followed by pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, fertilizer/pesticides and industrial chemicals. In most cases, the chemicals are disposed on land as part of the solid waste, parts of which are then collected and recycled. Exceptions are the pulp and paper and cement factories – these emit most of the chemical to air. However, it is quite likely that a significant part of the land pollution eventually ends up in water through direct runoff and seepage. Unfortunately, no information is available on the ultimate fate of these toxic chemicals.

Steps of reducing pollution by proper business plan: * Making business are * Proper damage system * Proper dumping system * More tree plantation * Making business policy * Business segmentation * Recycle waste materials * Using fuel * Reducing production of polythine * Toxic chemicals less using * Separated business industry area * Not throwing waste in the water * Using proper technology

Laws having relevance to natural resource management in Bangladesh can be broadly divided into the following categories:

• Laws having non-sect-oral approach- Environmental Conservation Act (ECA)
Of 1995 and Environmental Conservation Rules (ECR) of 1997.

• Sect-oral laws * Land use laws * Agriculture and irrigation laws * Water resource laws * Fisheries laws * Forestry laws * Wildlife laws * Energy laws * Health laws * Food and consumer protection laws * Transportation laws * Local Government laws * Urban and rural development laws

Recommendation of suggestion: At first government should come forward to control this problem. Proper business policy must be maintained. It must maintain that right thing in the right place. Industry must removed from residence are. Boiler system must be developed in every industry. We don’t want to repeat Niftily Tragedy. Drainage system must be developed.
Conclusion:
Environmental pollution is a global issue. In Bangladesh, the problem requires special attention and address because we are heading towards a disaster as our environment is now in a very adverse condition. If we want to live a healthy and peaceful life and a sound and better living, we must prevent environmental pollution and protect the environment.

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