Hydrological cycle or water cycle : This is a global circulation of water. (closed system) Closed system : This means that there is a fixed amount of water in the system. Stores
1. The atmosphere
2. The land
3. The sea
Flows (or transfers)
3. Overland flow
Drainage basins : Every river has this system,it is small-scale of hydrological cycle. (open system ) Open system : The amount of water in the system in the basin varies over time. Discharge : The amount of water carried by a river at any one time. Hydrograph : A graph showing the discharge of a river over a given period of time. Storm hydrograph : Records the changing discharge of a river after a passing rainstorm. Lag time : This delay between peak rainfall and peak discharge. Number of factors affecting the critical time lag of storm
1. The amount and the intensity of the rain
2. Temperatures are significant
3. Land use
4. Steep slopes
5. Rock type
6. Dams and reservoirs
Weathering : İnvolves elements of the weather,particulary rainfall and temperatures. Mass movement : The movement of weathered material down a slope due to the force of gravity. Rivers have energy this means that they can do work.Write down 3 works that rivers do. 1. Erosion
Attrition : Material being carried by a a river becoming rounder and smaller as they constantly collide with each other. Long profile : Of a river runs from its source to the point where it enters the sea,a lake or joins another and larger river. Fresh water is needed for the following purposes:
1. Domestic use
2. İndustrial use
3. Agricultural use
4. Leisure use
All forms of water use involve two key elements:
1. Demand- this is the need for water for a range of uses.
2. Supply – That is meeting the demand for water by tapping various sources, such as groundwater,lakes and rivers. Water balance : For any country or area within it ,it is possible to compare water demand and water supply. Why the water demand increased dramatically between 1990 to 2010 ? 1. Growth of the world’s population
2. Development increases the domestic use of water
3. Rise in agricultural productivity
4. Growing population increases the use of water
5. İndustrialisation also used in the generation of electricity for powering industry. Water-decifit areas : Areas where the water balance is negative - in other words where water demand exceeds supply. Water-surplus areas : Areas where the water balance is positive – where the supply or availability of water exceeds demand. Pollution : is another key factor that affects water quality. Water pollution : decreases water quality.
Source of water pollution
Safe water : is water that is safe for human consumption.
Managing the supply of clean water
Flooding – Flooding occurs when the amount of water moving down a river exceeds the capacity of the river’s channel. Factor :
Physical - Rock , Soil , Relief
Human – Deforesting , Urbanisation , Agriculture
Hazard : a defined as an event that treatens , or actually causes damage and destruction to people , their property and settlements. Natural hazards : is one prduced by enviromental processes and involves events such as storms,floods,earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Four major categories of hazards
Constructive or divergent plate margin
Destructive or convergent plate margin
Collision plate margin
Conservative plate margin
Earthquakes : An earthquake is a sudden and brief period of intense ground – shaking Richter Scale : is to measure an earthquake’s strength according to the amount of energy. Mercalli Scale : is quite different, it is based on what people experience and the amount of damage done. Focus : The centre of the earthquake underground .
Epicentre: Shock waves travel outwards from the...
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