engineering plant

Topics: Fire-tube boiler, Boilers, Steam locomotive Pages: 11 (1119 words) Published: October 9, 2013
BOILER
FUNCTION

a closed vessel
in which a liquid
(usually water) is
heated under
pressure to
generate a gas
(usually steam)

CLASSIFIED TO:

HIGH PRESSURE:
constructed to
operate above the limits set for
low-pressure boilers, and are
typically used for power
generation.
LOW PRESSURE:
limited to a maximum working
pressure of 15 psig (pound-force per
square inch gauge) for steam and 160
psig for hot water

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other
fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits
the boiler for use in various processes or heating
applications









Direction of axis of shell @ drum – vertical /
horizontal
The way of erected – stationary , portable,
marine
Location of the furnace – internally @ externally
fired
Position of water & hot gases – water tube @
fire tube.
As special boiler – natural circulation, force
circulation and one through

There are 3 range of boiler depending on usage

LOW PRESSURE STEAM
BOILER

MEDIUM PRESSURE
STEAM BOILER

raging up to 15 psi

HIGH PRESSURE STEAM
BOILER

raging between 25psi to
50psi

Used for space heating,
cooking, and hot water
distribution within
building

Used in industrial
heating, cooking, and
sterilization

Pressure more than
100psi

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Lekapan dandang bermaksud komponen asas yang
terpasang pada dandang untuk membantu
kecekapan dan keselamatan dandang semasa
dioperasikan













Injap keselamatan (safety valve)
Tolok tekanan (pressure gauge)
Injap tiub turun (blowdown valve)
Pam suapan (feed water pump)
Feed water check valve
Palam boleh lebur (fusible plug)
Low water fuel cut out
Main steam stop valve
Tolok air (glass gauge)
Tiang air (water column)
Injap-injap

Exterior and sectional views of spring pop safety valve

A. Spring
compression

B. Lifting gear

C. spindle

E. Blow down control

D. Back pressure

I. Thermal disk seat
J. Inlet neck

F. Lift stop adjustment

G. Groove disk holder

H. Upper adjusting ring

K. Inlet connection

Consolidated maxi flow safety valve

“To release the boiler pressure in the event of high pressure exceeding the ASWP”

“must be able to discharge the steam & maintain pressure NOT MORE THAN 10 % ASWP”

LEKAPAN DANDANG

Steam pressure gauges

Various forms of connection for a stem
gauge

“ to remove impurities and control water level”

“ to draws water from feed
tank and deliver it under
pressure to the boiler”

“ Feed Water Check Valve is to control
amount of water to the boiler & to
prevent backflow of feed water from
boiler”

Prevent backflow of feed
water from boiler”

“to give early protection from direct heat in the event of loss of water boiler – use in solid fuel boiler”

Three fusible plug design in common
Use on steam boiler

a. Waterside
b. Bolt-head fireside
c. Socket-head fireside

Palam boleh lebur (fusible plug)

“ to stop the boiler immediately by cut out fuel & air supply in the event of very low water level”

Main Stop Valve
“ to put boiler into service & stop the steam supply when boiler is shut down”

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Tolok air (glass gauge)


Penunjuk paras air dalam dandang



Diperbuat daripada kaca bulat dan ditandakan dengan tiga tandaan • paras air paling minima
• paras air pertengahan
• paras air paling maksima



Dipasang pada kedudukan bawahnya terletak dua inci lebih atas dari paras air dandang yang terendah. Ini bertujuan untuk memastikan tidak ada sebarang kerosakkan sebelum paras terendah tercapai

LEKAPAN DANDANG
High-pressure gauge glass

Low-pressure gauge glass

Tolok Air (Gauge Glass)

LEKAPAN DANDANG
Tiang air (water column)


Tiang air disambung antara bahagian atas (stim) dengan
bahagian bawah (air dandang)



Berfungsi sebagai penstabil dan mencegah air daripada naik
dan turun dengan keterlaluan dalam...
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