Top-Rated Free Essay

Engineering Design

Better Essays
TITLE- AUTOMATION IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

REPORT ON: (a) List the Major Equipments Used In Construction Work 1) Conventional 2) Semi Automatic 3) Fully Automatic OR Robotics (b) Identify the automation at different stages of construction. WHAT DOES AUTOMATION MEAN?
► The term automation refers to the phenomenon where a job is performed without the help of any human interference.
► Automation means performing a particular task with the help of machines.
► Automation has always proved to be an effective idea for most of the industries and companies, which deal with production of capital and consumer goods. Any type of production is readily facilitated by automation.
AUTOMATION IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY:
► Basically automation in construction means to the use of Information Technologies in Design, Engineering, Construction Technologies, and Maintenance and Management of Constructed Facilities.
► It is to reduce the need for human work and to save the time in the construction area.
► Even maintenance and control of building structures are done with the help of automation industry.
► Level of automation in construction industry is totally based on the country’s economic structure, utilized technologies, building materials used etc.
Advantages of automation in construction industry:
► Automation helps in saving the labour of the workers and thus it also saves a lot of time for the worker who can be then directed to some other work process.
► The Automation is also a money efficient way for construction puposes.
► Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.
► Automatic machines are skilled to give more unifom and accurate results.
► The key advantage of automation is to improve the productivity.

DISADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATION IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY:
► There is limited technology. Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks.
► Highly expensive. The automation of a new product or plant requires a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product.
► A main disadvantage often associated with automation, worker displacement.

EQUIPMENTS USED FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES, CAN BE OF THREE TYPES: 1.) Conventional. 2.) Semi-Automatic. 3.) Fully-Automatic or Robotics

CONVENTIONAL:
► These are the machines which are fully human operated.
►These are considerd as Human-powered as it uses human muscle power only.

► Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human-power. This increases the load of heavy labour and because of that time period of completing the project increases including all these problems there is one major problem regarding safety.
► Using such a heavy labour can create a hazardous problem for labours.

SEMI-AUTOMATIC:
► Semi-Automatation is something, when some processes in construction of a building structure are done by people but other processes are still performed by machines.
► This increases productivity by allowing people to do the more complicated tasks not able to be performed by machines and vice versa.

► CRANES are semi automatic equipment used in construction. ▪ A crane is a lifting machine, generally equipped with a winder (also called a wire rope drum), wire ropes or chains and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.
▪ It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human.

FULLY AUTOMATIC OR ROBOTICS:
► Full automation refers to the complete usage of artificial intelligence.
► Full automation has been a major tool in the transformation of the automation industry from its primitive phase to the level where there has been a complete computerisation of the various construction purposes.
ROBOTICS:
► Robotics has been implicated into various fields such as automation construction machine handling, automatic flooring of tiles, laying of surfaces etc.
► In construction industry ROBOTS can be used for: ▪ Tiling.
▪ Flooring.
▪ Welding.
▪ For fire mortar spraying. Etc.

Plastering robot for spray plastering of concrete walls.

WELDING ROBOT: ► Robot welding is the use of mechanized programmable tools (robots), which completely automate a welding process by both performing the weld and handling the part.
► Processes such as gas metal arc welding, while often automated, are not necessarily equivalent to robot welding, since a human operator sometimes prepares the materials to be welded.
► Robot welding is commonly used for resistance spot welding and arc welding in high production applications, such as the automotive industry.

Welding robot
CONCRETE FLOOR SURFACE FINISHING ROBOTS:
► It automatically finishes concrete floor surfaces.
► It is equipped with two sets of rotary floats.
► A running function in this floor finishing robot, Surf Robo automatically finishes concrete floor surfaces.

Floor finishing robot
FLOOR CLEANING ROBOTS:
► The assembly of the small squares of tile had traditionally been done by hand.
► These robots were used to remove this manual element while retaining both quality and accuracy.

LASER TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION:
By the use of laser technology we can perform following tasks:
► Grading and excavating measurement can be done.
► For determining the site’s area and percent gradient of slope
► Ensures safe work area, by instantly spot checking obstructions and overhangings. A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. As laser shows some optical features which are further used in: ► measuring, scanning and positioning.

As laser is a high energy source, its very useful for the construction industry,like: ► Welding,Cutting and Hole-making:- * Steel frame fabricators uses plasma cutting almost dominantly and seldom use laser cutting. * Laser has an advantage in precision cutting, however, precision is not accorded a priority to cost among the steel frame fabricators. * Laser is applied to the cutting of large sized ceramic tiles and stone materials . Laser devices are also used for ► Leveling, plumbing and measuring:- * Laser devices commonly used in construction fields for leveling, plumbing, positioning and measuring * Devices called “Rotating laser” are widely used for leveling in construction * “Pipe laser” devices are used to determine the gradient, e.g., of piping. * Laser theodolite devices are widely used for measurement in construction fields

* Total Stations have integrated capabilities of measuring multiple points by unattended remote control, storing and processing the multiple point data and transferring the data to other stations such as PCs.
FIXING OF PANELS :
► On some assembly lines, robots are used to fix interior door panels to the exterior door sections by applying a thin bead of adhesive to the exterior section and then compressing the interior section onto the exterior panel.
► Operators load the door panels onto a track where they are then assembled by the robots.
Panel fixing

MATERIAL HANDELING ROBOTS:

AUTOMATION IN DIFFERENT STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION : 1.) Survey: This is the rough survey of site before any beginning of construction. In this stage, level of ground is check using laser techniques.

2.) Marking- Similarly in civil engineering many automatic devices are used in the construction area for eg. GPS and GIS.
GPS
3.) Cleaning- There are many automatic washing devices used for cleaning purpose. Used for cleaning the construction area.

4.) Leveling- Some laser devices like “rotating laser” is used for the leveling in constructions.
Rotating laser

5.) EXCAVATION-: At the time of excavation generally digging work is there. So one needs dumpers or excavators for the purpose of construction work. For eg. Excavators, bulldozers, dumpers.

6.) Foundation: for making the mixture of cement & concrete and filling that mixture in the frame work at the time of foundation one requires robots. For eg:- concrete mixture robot, vibrator

Mixing machine

7.) Tiling- For tiling, in building construction, many tiling robots are used to just make the work easier and less time consuming.

8.) Glass fixing- Glass fixing robots are used for fixing large glasses used in the construction of buildings.

9.) Painting- Painting robots are used for painting long columns.

Painting robot

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Engineering Design

    • 615 Words
    • 3 Pages

    1. Engineering design generally involves five steps : developing a statement of the problem and/or a set of specifications, gathering information pertinent to the problem, designing several alternatives that meet the specifications, analyzing the alternatives and selecting the best one, and testing and implementing the best design. Discuss how is ethical problem solving shares similar attributes with engineering design. Ethical problem solving shares similar attributes with engineering design…

    • 615 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    CHAPTER 3 Introduction to Engineering Design © 2011 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 3-1 Engineering – An Exciting Profession • Introduction to engineering profession • Preparing for an engineering career • Introduction to engineering design • Engineering communication • Engineering Ethics © 2011 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved. 3-2 Outline In this chapter we will • Introduce you to the engineering design process • Discuss the basic…

    • 8693 Words
    • 35 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Beginning in the 1980s computer-aided design programs reduced the need of draftsmen significantly, especially in small to mid-sized companies. Their affordability and ability to run on personal computers also allowed engineers to do their own drafting and analytic work, eliminating the need for entire departments. In today's world, many students in universities do not learn manual drafting techniques because they are not required to do so. The days of hand drawing for final drawings are virtually…

    • 345 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    09/18/12 Introduction to Engineering Design Engineering design is the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs. It is a decision-making process (often iterative), in which the basic science and mathematics and engineering sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to meet a stated objective. Engineering Design Process The engineering design process is the formulation of a plan to help an engineer build a product…

    • 1139 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Engineering Design Process

    • 1828 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Edinburgh's Telford College ENGINEERING ACCESS TO ENGINEERING F5k512 Engineering design Design is a problem solving activity in which the designer has to convert the customer’s needs for a product into a fully functional design. The customer’s needs are presented in the form of a design brief. A design brief is a description in broad terms of the client’s needs which may contain any of the following: • Client’s requirements • Functional details…

    • 1828 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    engineering design project

    • 1079 Words
    • 5 Pages

    School of Continuing and Professional Education City University of Hong Kong BEng (Hons) Fire Engineering Semester B (12/13) Engineering Design Project (FV3201) Assignment 2 Instructor: Dr. Dominic Yu Student Name: Chan Man Hong Student ID card: 52654785 1. Select one “fire-rated timber/glazed door” system OR one “fire-rated panel” system in local market and review its fire test reports and assessment reports. a) Describe the door or panel system, material used and its application…

    • 1079 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Mechanical engineering design involves all the trainings in mechanical engineering. Real problems resist compartmentalization. A simple journal bearing involves fluid flow, heat transfer, friction, energy transport, material selection, thermo mechanical treatments, statistical descriptions, and so on. A building is environmentally controlled. The heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning analysis are sufficiently specialized that some speak of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning design as if…

    • 483 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN PROJECTS FINAL STATUS REPORT SUBMITTED BY Bennett Lee | Ethan Aaron | Mike Steltenkamp Group #9 May 6, 2013 1|P a ge MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN PROJECTS FINAL STATUS REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS PROJECT OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 OVERALL DESIGN....................…

    • 4136 Words
    • 17 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCE AND BIOENGINEERING Vol. 100, No. 3, 235–245. 2005 DOI: 10.1263/jbb.100.235 © 2005, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan REVIEW Bioreactor Design for Tissue Engineering Ralf Pörtner,1* Stephanie Nagel-Heyer,1 Christiane Goepfert,1 Peter Adamietz,2 and Norbert M. Meenen3 Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, Bioprozess- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Denickestr. 15, 21071 Hamburg, Germany,1 Universitätsklinikum Eppendorf, Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie II,…

    • 8357 Words
    • 34 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    interesting and more expressive of sentiment than any other thing. It is more fascinating than costly jewelry, and cannot be lost, borrowed, or stolen. It is a memento we can keep through life and retain after death. Crismerly Perez (Invention, Design, Engineering, and Architect) has three tattoos: a bird on the left side of her chest, and a quote on each arm. The quote, in Latin, is from St. Augustine that says, "hate the sin" on one arm, and "love the sinner" on the other. A lot of people categorize…

    • 607 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays