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Enforced Disappearance

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o Introduction o Berry Buzan theory on security o Key concepts
 Hartal
 Missing [Enforced disappearance] o Impacts
 Hartal in the perspective of Bangladeshi security
 Missing in the perspective of Bangladeshi security o Conclusion Assignment on
Hartal & Missing; Examination of BD security according to Buzan’s apparatus COURSE NO: 703
Submitted by: Submitted to:
Md. Hafizur Rahman Sikder Kazi Mohammad Mahbobor Rahman
Section: B Roll no: 418 Lecturer, Dept. of Political Science
University of Dhaka

o Introduction: The people of Bangladesh are very anxious for the current political ambience. Recently the trends of “missing by assassinators”, “enforced by disappearance by the govt. detective branch” resulting the “hartal”, political dichotomy and stalement throw the people into hazardous situation even make a chasm between politicians and general people. The abduction of BNP leader Ileas Ali, chronicle hartal in order to return him, beleaguer aiming to hartal and terrorism over the country have made the people angry. Chronically calling on Hartal by opposite party damages the economy of BD. General people are being deprived from their daily income. The regular & normal life style of the people is halted by this turmoil. They are apprehensive to think what would be happening the following days. The BD politics is diverting back into just like what was in 1991. We are practicing the mal-political consecutivity for twenty years. The democratic flag is hoisted every five year-general election even bartering the government by the polls. Rests are directed by blue chart of political viciousness. Corollary is enforced disappearance of political personalities, hartal, vandalism of public properties, bomb blusting even more. All are destructive works but in the name of democracy and politics. Bangladesh may face a deep rooted problems, if this type of dichotomy is going on for long term. In this paper I would try to clear the Bangladeshi security issues in the perspective of calling on hartal because of missing according to Berry Buzan theory on the security issues. o Berry Buzan theory on security: The political scientist Berry Buzan gives a theory in 1994 on security and also shows a chart on the different dimensions of security. To clear the assignment subject, that chart is given below with a momentary definition of security……. Security: The protection and preservation of the minimum core values [political independence & territorial identity] in a definite area.
 Identification of security in terms of insecurity; Chart -1  Security analysis: Chart -2

1. Chart-1: Security policies in the modern world; Lawrence Freedman, pg-730-740
2. Chart -2:Identity, Migration and the new security agenda in Europe;O.waever, Berry Buzan,pg-1-16 o Key concepts:
Hartal:
 Hartal (also hartaal) is a term in many South Asian languages for strike action, used often during the Indian Independence Movement. It is mass protest often involving a total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law as a form of civil disobedience. In addition to being a general strike, it involves the voluntary closing of schools and places of business. It is a mode of appealing to the sympathies of a government to change an unpopular or unacceptable decision.[3] Hartal was originally a Gujarati expression signifying the closing down of shops and warehouses with the object of realizing a demand. The contemporary origins of such a form of public protest dates back to the British colonial rule in India

 A peaceful putting forward a counter argument on the definite motion and notion which is politically defined, is known as hartal. Hartal may has a happy ending with the people supports otherwise it brings a huge number of vandalism.[4] Hartal is considered as a logical way of negating the and democratic rights. Anally Hartal had a great contribution in movement & people uprising against colonialism in this sub-continent. Subsequently, in the Shwadhikar movement in that time of Pakistan and in independent- Bangladesh, mass movement against anarchy, the utilizing of hartal is well known to all. It was hoped that the trends of hartal would vanished in the posterior period of 1991 in the full democratic ambience in Bangladesh. Then in driving the country, contradiction with each another political party, intolerance and lacking of co-operation among the political parties, hindrance the chronicle parliamentary activities. The elected people’s representatives are coinciding into the highway in order to resolve the problems and achieve the political demands. Thus in the last two decades, many days were called for hartal in Bangladesh.

______________________________________________________________________
3. Online edition of Sunday Observer - 10 Aug 2003; www.wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
4. দৈনিক প্রথম আলো ;৩ মে, ২০১২। Missing

 Missing is a word that is considered as

1. Not present; absent or lost
2. Not able to be traced and not known to be dead Example: Nine men were missing after the attack

 Something that is missing is not in its usual place, so that it can’t be found Example: We found the missing piece of the jigsaw under the chair.

 Missing, another meanings are • Not present or included when expected or supposed to be • (Of a person) absent from a place, especially their home, and of unknown whereabouts: he has been reported as a missing person • (Of a person) not yet traced or confirmed as alive, but not known to be dead, after an accident or during wartime Example: four soldiers had been wounded and one man was missing servicemen listed as missing in action [Oxford Dictionary] But missing has another definition when it relates with the politics and State. Then it indicates to “enforced disappearance”.  A person whom the ruling party forces to disappear himself from before of people or from the normal life, that is enforced disappearance [missing]. More clear that if the ruling party is threatened by the opposition party and by some political leaders then the government try to repress them anyhow. In this step, the govt. party diverts those people from the people’s appearance. When this is done then their disciples are confused that are they alive or died. This incident indicates the Missing what is politically said enforced disappearance.

 This missing is also be done by the criminals at purpose of special vision. In the USA, Argentina and Cambodia, missing is very familiar to the country dwellers. But in Bangladesh it is very new terms that people have ever known it. In the last 27 months, there have been about 100 persons missed in BD whether 55 dead bodies have been found in different area of the country, rests are not found yet. So this is missing.[5]

5. The Daily Star; 2nd May, 2012

Hartal in the perspective of Bangladeshi security Today the term Hartal is very ridiculous to me even to the people. Before hartal was called for peaceful way and also was espoused by the general people but now-a days hartal is called for thorough the country and to fulfill it, the rampant and party workers vandalize the public properties on the day before of hartal even they hurl the people into rubbish anxiety. They also destroy the vehicles in the road, what results come they never have concern as to it, if any individual die or not. They confine the people in home preventing to going out of home. This situation creates psychological problems in human mind what is, according to Buzan, societal insecurity problem because of thorough out the whole country. Political sector; Now-a-days every opposition political party call for hartal to counter ruling party when there is a matter comes to them as contradiction. Those political parties may have profits but general people suffer from intolerable hazardous situations. The current scenery of hartal is fully opposite to the rule no 37 of BD constitution. This creates inactivity of the national parliament what is politically insecuritizes the country. Buzan shows it as political sector in security analysis. The parliament can’t take right decision internally even externally I mean making of foreign policies. That’s why Bangladesh failed in many policies with neighboring countries like in Tista chapter with India because of no national integration politically. This is also discreet matter of security whether some think about concrete or constant. Regional problems: On the other hand the ruling party can’t profits through bargaining with another country whether other opposite party always opposes the govt. propositions, also same to the ruling party. This results Bangladesh is always pressurized by the neighboring countries, that creates regional problems. Example: In maritime issue BNP opposes the verdict and AL what may has a negative. impact on the country from the NASAKA that may be the military insecurity issue in BD. Economic sector; Hartal has also bad impact on the economic recession even sometimes economic inflation. Before may, 2012 BNP called 8 days hartal whether last 15 days, they called 4 days hartal that ensloth the country and export to abroad. In only Garments sector, its income decreased to 35% in a day. On the other hand being frustrated the foreigners are withdrawing their order which is threat for the state economy. In this sector, about 3000000 people work who are threatened and their lives are often insecured. Here economic situation of internal & external both xaxstapously threat the people’s lives. Berry Buzsan considers it economic sector of security analysis. Environment; Hartal halts the transportation that’s why huge amount of raw-food is damaged that harms the ecosystem. On the other hand the running projects for environment welfare are rested by hartal that’s why people suffer from mal-biosphere. Missing in the perspective of Bangladeshi security Now a days missing [enforced disappearance] is newly born to the people. It is a alternation, perceived by politicians, of crossfire/encounter by RAB & govt. foot licking administration. It is also a new disaster of BD politics even in normal life of general people. It impacts are like this following chart Thus Missing and Hartal are related with each another. Missing brings a turmoiling situation in the country that also makes political dichotomy. In our country always the opposition party has tendency to gather issue to counter forward the ruling party. So when missing is done by either govt. detective branch or another terrorist, then the government is charged with this responsibility.[6] In last 27 months there were 100 persons were misses by the terrorists. On last 14th April, Ileas Ali was disappearance from his car with his driver. This is results of mal-administration, law-embankments and insecuritization from the government. The opposition party gets an issue and calls hartal and gives the government ultimatum. This creates a conflictual political ambience in BD. Ultimately gainer is party but suffers the people.[6] External pressure: It also creates a foreign pressure for instant the missing of Aminul Islam (leader of garments workers) agitates the whole world’s workers union what is disclosed in Hilary Clintons appearance during bilateral discussion with PM Sheikh Hasina. So it also insecuritizes the country.
Conclusion:
None can deny the negative impacts in the relation between the development and reconstruction of democracy and Hartal & missing as hard political strategy at absence of full fleeced politics and real practice of Democracy. So each should negotiate, discuss with ruling party instead of Hartal, also to govt. party.
6. The New Age, 15th April, 2012
7. Human Rights Watch, BD, report-March-2012

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