Energy Systems

Topics: Cellular respiration, Metabolism, Glucose Pages: 11 (1831 words) Published: January 26, 2015
Energy Systems

Contents Page
Title
Page Number
Energy from Foods
3
Re-Synthesis
4
Creatine Phosphate Energy System
5
Lactic Acid Energy System
6
Aerobic Energy System
7
Sporting Examples
8
Training Methods
9
Bibliography
11

Energy from Foods

We need energy in order to make our muscle fibres contract. Our energy comes from two main sources; Fats and Carbohydrates. Our energy is obtained from the oxidation that takes place in carbohydrate and fat food sources. Oxidation is the combination of a substance and oxygen. Fats and carbohydrates themselves do not form ATP. The energy that is released from these foods are what trigger the binding of ATP.

Fats
Triglyceride is the digested of fat needed for energy production. It is found in fatty foods such as sweets, crisps, chocolate, avocados etc. the Triglycerides are stored in the muscles and are broken down during exercise to produce fatty acids. Fatty acids are the primary source of fats when they are being used for energy. Fatty acids are stored in the fat cells and travel around the body in the blood. Fatty acids can aid in the production of ATP and can be used at a low intensity for longer periods of time, where 1 gram of fat provides 37 kilojoules of energy.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are broken down by the body to form Glucose. The Glucose that is not required immediately for energy by the body, is then converted into Glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles. Any chemical reactions that involve Glucose or Glycogen will produce ATP. Carbohydrate foods, such as bread, rice, pasta, cereals and potatoes, provide the best source of Glycogen, where 1 gram of carbohydrates provides 16 kilojoules of energy.

Re-synthesis
The body does not continuously reproduce ATP. It must be recycled. This process is known as Re-synthesis. This process rebuilds ATP and ADP from the three energy systems; Creatine Phosphate energy, Lactic Acid energy and Aerobic energy. The energy system used will depend on how long the activity lasts, the intensity of the activity and how quickly it is performed. However, all three energy systems will work in the same way to re-synthesise the ATP. The energy released from chemical reaction will recombine the ADP and P to form ATP. This process is known as coupled reactions, where energy produced from one reaction is used to instigate another reaction. E.g.:

ADP P ENERGY form breakdown of foods ATP ATP ADP P ENERGY for activity

Creatine Phosphate Energy System

ATP and Creatine Phosphate make up the ATP-PC energy system. This is the immediate energy system and is used when there is insufficient time to break down the glycogen to replenish ATP. There is more PC stored in the muscles than ATP due too Creatine Phosphate being a very high energy compound. When energy intensity is high and energy is needed immediately, the Creatine phosphate is broken down to form ATP; when the high energy bond of PC is broken down, the Creatine and Phosphate break away from each other and the energy it releases is used to form ADP and P which combine together to from ATP. This process does not usually require oxygen. E.g.:

PC C P ENERGY
ADP P ENERGY ATP

The Creatine Phosphate energy system is mainly used for explosive actions in sports that usually last for about 10-15 seconds at maximum intensity because the amount of PC is limited. These activities include shot put, 100m sprint and being 1st runner in a short corner. The PC stores are quickly replenished within 2 minutes of resting, allowing a repeat of the intense activity without being instantly exhausted. During recovery, the P and C used to form ATP is recombined for more energy. This energy system is the most readily available source of ATP as it doesn’t depend of a long series of chemical reactions, transportation of oxygen...

Bibliography: 1. Internet source (2015) – Aerobic training methods http://www.livestrong.com/article/365631-aerobic-fitness-training-methods/ [accessed 11/01/2015].
2. Internet source (2000-2012) – Lactic Acid training methods http://www.momentumsports.co.uk/TtHill.asp [accessed 9/01/2015].
3. Internet source (2015) – ATP/PC training methods http://www.ptdirect.com/training-design/anatomy-and-physiology/the-atp-pc-system [accessed 9/01/2015].
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