Syllabus Energy Scenario: Commercial and Non-Commercial Energy, Primary Energy Resources, Commercial Energy Production, Final Energy Consumption, Energy Needs of Growing Economy, Long Term Energy Scenario, Energy Pricing, Energy Sector Reforms, Energy and Environment: Air Pollution, Climate Change, Energy Security, Energy Conservation and its Importance, Energy Strategy for the Future, Energy Conservation Act-2001 and its Features.
Energy is one of the major inputs for the economic development of any country. In the case of the developing countries, the energy sector assumes a critical importance in view of the everincreasing energy needs requiring huge investments to meet them. Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria: • • • Primary and Secondary energy Commercial and Non commercial energy Renewable and Non-Renewable energy
1.2 Primary and Secondary Energy
Primary energy sources are those that are either found or stored in nature. Common primary energy sources are coal, oil, natural gas, and biomass (such as wood). Other primary energy sources available include nuclear energy from radioactive substances, thermal energy stored in earth’s interior, and potential energy due to earth’s gravity. The major primary and secondary energy sources are shown in Figure 1.1 Primary energy sources are mostly converted in industrial utilities into secondary energy sources; for example coal, oil or gas converted into steam and electricity.
Open or Deep Mines
Secondary Energy Steam
Cracking and Refining
LPG Petrol Diesel/fuel oils
Figure 1.1 Major Primary and Secondary Sources