Energy Conservation in India: Challenges & Achievements
Anjna N. Singh, Jagrati Sharma
Chemistry Deptt, MPCT, Gwalior ,India E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract: The gap between supply and demand of energy is continuously increasing despite huge outlay for energy sector since independence. Further the brining of fossil fuel is resulting in greenhouse gases which are detrimental to the environment. The gap between supply and demand of energy can be bridged with the help of energy conservation which may be considered as a new source of energy which is environment friendly. The energy conservation is cost effective with a short payback period and modest investment. There is a good scope of energy conservation in various sectors, viz industry agriculture, transport and domestic, This paper will give overview of energy conservation in Indian scenario. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
India today has a vast population of more than 1.20 billions out of which nearly 75% are living in rural areas. Energy and development are inter-related. In order to have sustainable growth rate. It is imperative to have sufficient energy for systematic development in various sectors. Energy sector has received top priority in all Five year pains so far. During seventh Five Year plans 30% of the plan outlay was allotted to this sector. The installed capacity of electric power has increased from 1362 MW. At the time of independence to a staggering 70,000 MW. Despite such achievements, the gap between demand and supply of electrical energy is increasing every year as power sector is highly capital-intensive. The deficit in installed capacity was nearly 10,000 MW, by the and of eleventh five year plan. It is estimated that in 2011 alone India has lost above 10.0 billion US$ in manufacturing productivity because for power is projected to grow by 7 to 10% per year for the next 10 years. The working group on power had recommended capacity addition program of 46,645 MWduring the twelveth plan period along with the associated transmission and distribution works at a cost of Rs. 12, 26,000 corer. With this capacity addition there would have been a peak power shortage of 15.3 percent by the end of the 12th plans. The proven reserves of fossil fuel in India are not very large. A major share of scarce foreign currency is earmarked for importing petroleum products. The bill of which is continuously increasing coal reserve likely to be exhausted by the middle or centaury. Thus a bleak scenario awaits India in future unless absolutely new strategies are adopted. In spite of huge plan outlay of energy sector in last 60 years, most of the rural population has not yet been able to reach the threshold of enough energy to meet their basic human needs. There appears to be something basically wrong in planning. The planners have adopted the western model of centralized energy system without necessary modification to suit Indian condition. In future the energy conservation would assume more significance globally on the basis of the effect of burning fossil fuel on environment, particularly the global warming rather than the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and other consideration. Sector wise energy consumption:Sector Industry Transport Residential Agriculture Others %power consumption 49% 22% 10% 5% 14%
THE SCOPE AND POTENTIAL The developing countries like India are obliged to maintain a certain growth rate for which energy is a basic ingredient. Failure to meet the energy demand for the basic needs of the economy will cause inflation unemployment and socio economic disorder. The major energy projects are capital-intensive and result in the degradation of the environment and ecology. Energy efficiency and conservation in the past have been...
References: 1. Shashank S. Nadganda et al. “India studies non utility power for new capacity. Power Engineering International pp.33-34 May 1993 2. Edward M. Kennedy, “Energy in Developing countries “Congress of the United state office of Technology Assessment. 3. “Energy Conservation in Developing countries”Report of the Executive Director United Nation Energy Programme. 4. Report of working group on Energy conservation Planning commission 2005 5. TERI Information Digest on Energy Vol.4. , No. oct-dec.2011 6. Energy Conservation (Challenges and opportunities) Advisory Board on Energy Government of India ,Aug 1986, Urja.Vol.33, No.4, April 1999 7. Daksha Vaja and Nandini Gandhi “ Energy Audit for Industry 8. www.google.co.in
India is producing nearly 30 million tones of indigenous crude against the demand more than 50 million tones accounting for 60% indigenous production. The demand of petroleum products in growing at an average of 8% per year. Therefore, any effort of saving of precious petroleum products will help other development activities.
Some important conclusions are listed below: 1. The energy efficiency and conservation may be viewed as a new source of energy, benign and clean, having little investment and short payback period. This approach can go a long way in bridging the gap between demand and supply of energy. 2. It is absolutely necessary to bring attitudinal changes in all energy users in respect of energy efficiency. This can be achieved, to a large extent, by imparting energy education at school level itself. 3. A high power Apex Body at national level may be constituted to coordinate various activities in this field. 4. Energy efficiency standards should be setup for all major machinery, equipment and appliances. This single approach will go a long way in ensuring energy efficiency in various sectors. 5. The concept of energy audit, on regular basis, may be introduced in every industry. Energy audit should be given the same importance as the financial audit. 6. A comprehensive Act may be passed by the Parliament without further loss of time. The act should be simple in interpretation and effective in implementation. 7. Energy efficiency is to be given due importance at the planning stage itself of the new industries. The Financial institutions may be asked to insist on this aspect before sanctioning loans. 8. The government should provide more attractive incentives in terms of soft loans for purchasing energyefficient machinery and subsidies for employing energy
____________________________________________________________________________________________________ International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (IJMIE), ISSN No. 2231 –6477, Volume-1, Issue-3, 2012
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