Endogenous Processes and Associated Landforms

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ENDOGENOUS PROCESSES AND
ASSOCIATED LANDFORMS

THE EVER CHANGING LANDSCAPE







Earth’s surface is ever changing
Endogenous processess- interior of the earth
Mountains, plateaus and plains formed
Occurences of volcanoes and earthquakes
Processess- slow and sudden
Many areas rise or subside

NOTABLE CHANGES





Breaking of Gondwanaland 120 mya
Indian peninsula started drifting towards north
Took present shape around 40 mya
Raising of Himalayas- present height during last
1 million years.

FORCES OF DIASTROPHISM





Folding
Faulting
Uplift
Depression
– Act Very slowly
– Effects visible after thousands of years

• Two types of diastrophism
– Vertical forces
– Horizontal Forces

VERTICAL FORCES
• Continental rise and sink
– Upward forces- Uplift
– Downward forces- Subsidence

• Do not disturb the horizontality of rock layers
• At the most, layers may be inclined or tilted.

HORIZONTAL FORCES
• Mountain- building forces
• Act in a horizontal direction
• Disturb horizontal layers of rocks
– Compression- body pushed from opposite sides
– Tension- Rocks are pulled apart

FOLDING






Bending of horizontal layers of rocks
Tilting or twisting of rock strata
Caused by compression
Formation of series of crests and troughs
Anticlines & synclines
– Anticlines- limbs incline in different directions
– Synclines- limbs incline in same direction

TYPES OF FOLDS
• Symmetrical folds- both limbs equally bent, inclined at almost equal angles to the horizontal.
• Asymmetrical folds- one limb pushed too far, one side gradual slop, other side steeper
• Monoclinal fold- one fold is vertical
• Isoclinal fold- both sides are inclined in the same direction
• Recumbent fold- one limb is pushed over the other, both limbs are parallel to each other
• Overthrust fold- fracture occurs, one limb slides forward over the other limb.

FAULTING
• Result of tension
• Rock strata cannot withstand tension, breaks
• Displacement along the fault plane.
– Normal Fault- blocks

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