Emotional Status and Development in Children Who Are Visually Impaired There are mutual effects of emotional problems on the development of visually impaired children. The methodologies used may correspond to developments at different ages. The study identifies a group of visual impaired children with emotional or behavioral deficits that is compared to their development with visually impaired children with no emotional or behavioral detect as related to age. The author hypothesizes there will be a significant delay in social and language development and less significant delay in fine and gross motor function of children who are visual impaired and have emotional or behavioral deficits. Method
Between ages 0-5, 210 children were admitted 1975 and 1993. The criteria include visual impaired with acuity equivalent to 6/60 or lower, no other chronic illness, living in a two-parent family home, and attending the unit regularly for assessment with follow up. Half of the 74 participants were Arabs and Jews. 61% of children are boys and 39% girls. Results
Of the 74 participants 16 were diagnosed as having a significant emotional or behavioral deficit. Data supports a significant relationship to emotional and behavioral status in the gross motor achievement. The study supports no significant relation on the gross motor performance between emotional and behavioral status and maternal education or child’s age. The research suggests no relationship between other fine motor attainments, special orientation and emotional or behavioral status. However, the author believes there is some significance between them. Fine motor skills decrease with older age participants. Perceived Competence of Children with Visual Impairments
A parent or guardian returns a consent form and a demographic questionnaire by mail two weeks before the camp. A one-week summer sports camp of 43 visual impaired participants had 27 male and 16 female. Between ages 8-14 years old, there were 33 participants. Between ages 15-21, there were 10 participants. The individuals involve were suggested to have no cognitive delays influencing perception of competence. The Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) was developed to tap domain-specific judgments of competence and global perceptions of worth or esteem of children aged 8-14. In the study of the domains only the athletic competence, social acceptance, and physical appearance scales were used. Each subscale contained 6 items, for a total of 18. Participants decide if they are more like the person described on the left or right sides of the page. Then indicate whether the description most like them is "really true" or "sort of true" corresponding to them. The chose selected scored on a scale of from 1 (low perceived competence or adequacy) to 4 (high perceived competence or adequacy).The final score is determine by the 6 items for each subscale. The Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) is an extension of the SPPC developed for youths aged 15-17 (Harter, 1988). Similar to the previous study used except for the alteration of words making the test age appropriate. The SPPA contains nine subscales only the physical appearance, athletic competence, and social were used in this study. Each subscale contains 5 items, for a total of 15, and scoring are the same as for the SPPC. Based on the Cronbach’s alpha, the internal consistency reliability and the total scale was α = .80 for children and α = .71 for youths. The campers rotated to pre-assigned sports activities accessible for persons with visual impairments. Campers in both the younger and older age groups participated in the same activities each day, but the order would be different. Each individual had the same opportunities and approximately the same amount of time in each sport event. 43 counselors (27 female and 16 male) were assign to the campers. 12 male campers had female counselors, 15 male campers had male counselors and 16 female...
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