Emotional Intelligence

Topics: Emotional intelligence, Management, Emotion Pages: 29 (9395 words) Published: June 21, 2013
School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala
School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala
When psychologists began research on intelligence, they focused on non – emotional aspects such as thinking, cognition, intellect, memory and problem solving (Intelligence Quotient). However, there were researchers who recognised early on that, emotional aspects such as feelings, moods, and non – cognition were equally important (Emotional Quotient). Emotional intelligence studies have been conducted in the arenas of business, civic administration and education, where it has been widely accepted as an indispensable force. The purpose of this section is to review those current studies that have yielded significant findings and have application to this study. The review of literature is being presented under five sections: 1.Emotional Intelligence and Leadership. 2.Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Management. 3.Emotional Intelligence and Job Stress. 4.Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance. 5.Emotional Intelligence and Other Work Place Outcomes. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LEADERSHIP

Emotional intelligence is very important in leadership roles, as leaders need everyone to do their jobs as effectively as possible and this requires a high degree of interpersonal effectiveness. Studies show that high emotional quotient differentiates REVIEW OF LITERATURE

School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala
average from superior performers, which can be critical for leadership positions. A brief account of studies citing the role of emotional intelligence in leadership behaviour is mentioned below: Cooper and Sawaf (1997) cited that 7% of leadership success is attributable to intellect; 93% of success comes from trust, integrity, authenticity, honesty, creativity, presence and resilience. Leaders with high levels of emotional intelligence positively apply social skills to influence others, create strong relationships with clients and employees, and are effective motivators by controlling their emotions and understanding their weaknesses (Feldman, 1999; Noyes, 2001; Chastukhina, 2002). Barling, Slater and Kelloway (2000) examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Their research findings showed that emotional intelligence is associated with three aspects of transformational leadership (namely, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and individualized consideration), and contingent reward. In contrast, active and passive management by expectation, and laissez-faire management were not associated with emotional intelligence. Due to the social complexity of today’s organizations, Dearborn (2002) suggests managers with high emotional intelligence may be more capable of getting more output from less people and recognizing the nuances of dynamic situations while creating positive outcomes. 61

School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala
Elias, Arnold and Hussey (2003) claim effective leadership is a combination of traditional intelligence (intelligence quotient) and emotional intelligence. They compare intelligence quotient to the raw material of knowledge and emotional quotient to the ability to turn knowledge into action. Those leaders who possess a strong set of interpersonal skills and can distinguish what approach is best to use for any given situation are most likely to be successful in their positions (Dyer, 2001). Such skills needed for effective leadership include empathy, heightened awareness, insight, and the ability to give feedback (Bass, 1985). Mandell and Pherwani (2003) examined the predictive relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership style, the gender differences within each construct, and interaction effects between gender and emotional intelligence. The study established that emotional intelligence significantly predicts...

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