Emotional Intelligence

Topics: Emotional intelligence, Management, Emotion Pages: 29 (9395 words) Published: June 21, 2013
School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala
CHAPTER -II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
59
School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala
When psychologists began research on intelligence, they focused on non – emotional aspects such as thinking, cognition, intellect, memory and problem solving (Intelligence Quotient). However, there were researchers who recognised early on that, emotional aspects such as feelings, moods, and non – cognition were equally important (Emotional Quotient). Emotional intelligence studies have been conducted in the arenas of business, civic administration and education, where it has been widely accepted as an indispensable force. The purpose of this section is to review those current studies that have yielded significant findings and have application to this study. The review of literature is being presented under five sections: 1.Emotional Intelligence and Leadership. 2.Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Management. 3.Emotional Intelligence and Job Stress. 4.Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance. 5.Emotional Intelligence and Other Work Place Outcomes. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND LEADERSHIP

Emotional intelligence is very important in leadership roles, as leaders need everyone to do their jobs as effectively as possible and this requires a high degree of interpersonal effectiveness. Studies show that high emotional quotient differentiates REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1
60
School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala
average from superior performers, which can be critical for leadership positions. A brief account of studies citing the role of emotional intelligence in leadership behaviour is mentioned below: Cooper and Sawaf (1997) cited that 7% of leadership success is attributable to intellect; 93% of success comes from trust, integrity, authenticity, honesty, creativity, presence and resilience. Leaders with high levels of emotional intelligence positively apply social skills to influence others, create strong relationships with clients and employees, and are effective motivators by controlling their emotions and understanding their weaknesses (Feldman, 1999; Noyes, 2001; Chastukhina, 2002). Barling, Slater and Kelloway (2000) examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Their research findings showed that emotional intelligence is associated with three aspects of transformational leadership (namely, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and individualized consideration), and contingent reward. In contrast, active and passive management by expectation, and laissez-faire management were not associated with emotional intelligence. Due to the social complexity of today’s organizations, Dearborn (2002) suggests managers with high emotional intelligence may be more capable of getting more output from less people and recognizing the nuances of dynamic situations while creating positive outcomes. 61

School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala
Elias, Arnold and Hussey (2003) claim effective leadership is a combination of traditional intelligence (intelligence quotient) and emotional intelligence. They compare intelligence quotient to the raw material of knowledge and emotional quotient to the ability to turn knowledge into action. Those leaders who possess a strong set of interpersonal skills and can distinguish what approach is best to use for any given situation are most likely to be successful in their positions (Dyer, 2001). Such skills needed for effective leadership include empathy, heightened awareness, insight, and the ability to give feedback (Bass, 1985). Mandell and Pherwani (2003) examined the predictive relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership style, the gender differences within each construct, and interaction effects between gender and emotional intelligence. The study established that emotional intelligence significantly predicts...

Bibliography: · Bar-On, R., Handley, R., and Fund, S. (2006). The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Performance. In V. Druskat, F. Sala, and G. Mount (Eds.), Linking Emotional Intelligence and Performance at Work, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, pp 3-19.
· Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations, Free Press, New York.
· Bhalla, S., and Nauriyal, D. K. (2004). “EI: The Emerging Paradigm”, Personnel Dynamics, Vol 49, pp 97-106.
· Boyatzis, R. E., and Ratti, F. (2009). “Emotional, Social and Cognitive Intelligence Competencies Distinguishing Effective Italian Managers and Leaders in a Private Company and Cooperatives”, Journal of Management Development, Vol 28 (9), 821-838.
· Brenda, Scott-Ladd, and Christopher, C. A. Chan (2004). “Emotional Intelligence and Participation in Decision-Making: Strategies for Promoting Organizational Learning and Change”, Strategic Change, Vol 13, pp 95–105.
· Brundin, E., Patzelt, H., and Shepherd, D. A. (2008). “Managers’ Emotional Displays and Employees’ Willingness to act Entrepreneurially”, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol 23 (2), pp 221-243.
· Carmeli, A. (2003). “The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Work Attitudes, Behavior and Outcomes”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol 18, pp 788-813.
· Gohm, Carol L., Corser, Grant C., and Dalsky, David J. (2005). “Emotional Intelligence under Stress: Useful, Unnecessary, or Irrelevant?” Personality and Individual Differences, Vol 39, pp 1017–1028.
· Center for Creative Leadership (2003). Leadership Skills and Emotional Intelligence, http://www.ccl.org/leadership/pdf/assessments/skills_intelligence.pdf.
· Chabungham, Parmananda (2005). “The Soft Art of Being a Tough Leader”, Indian Management Journal, pp 82-84.
· Chand, P., and Sethi, A. S. (1997). “Organisational Factors in the Development of Work Stress”, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol 32 (4), pp 453-462.
· Chastukina, N. (2002). On The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Annual Conference of the Organizational Systems Research, St. Louis, MO.
· Cherniss, C., and Goleman, D. (1998). Bringing Emotional Intelligence to the Workplace,
www.eiconsortium.org/.../ei_issues_and_common_misunderstandings.html
· Chiva, R., and Alegre, J. (2008). “Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Organizational Learning Capability”, Personnel Review, Vol 37 (6), pp 680-701.
· Cluskey, G. R. (1994). “Accounting Position Misfit Occupational Job Stressors, Stress and Job Strain on Managements Accountants’’ Dissertation Abstract International, Vol 56 (3).
· Cooper, R. K., and Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations, Gosset, Putnam, New York.
· Cooper, R. K. (1997). “Applying Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace”, Training and Development, Vol 51 (12), pp 31-38.
· Cote, S., and Miners, C. T. H. (2006). “Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Intelligence, and Job Performance”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol 51 (1), pp 1-28.
· Cumming, E. A. (2005). An Investigation into the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Workplace Performance: An Exploratory Study, Unpublished
Master’s Thesis, Lincoln University, Pennsylvania
· Dasgupta, Hirak, and Kumar, Suresh (2009). “Role Stress among Doctors Working in a Government Hospital in Shimla (India)”, European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol 9 (3).
· Dearborn, K. (2002). “Studies in Emotional Intelligence Redefine Our Approach to Leadership Development”, Public Personnel Management, Vol 31 (4), pp 8- 11.
· Deshpande, S. P. (2009). “A Study of Ethical Decision Making by Physicians and Nurses in Hospitals”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 90, pp 387-397.
· Duran, A., and Extremera, N. (2004). “Self-Reported Emotional Intelligence, Burnout and Engagement among Staff in Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities”, Psychological Reports, Vol 95 (2), pp 386–392.
· Dyer, K. M. (2001). “Relational Leadership”, The School Administrator, Vol 58 (11), pp 29-30.
· Elias, M. J., Arnold, H., and Hussey, C. S. (2003). EQ + IQ = Best leadership Practices for Caring and Successful Schools, Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.
· Feldman, D. A. (1999). The Handbook of Emotionally Intelligent Leadership: Inspiring Others to Achieve Results, Leadership Performance Solutions Press, Falls Church, VA.
· Gabel, R. S., Dolan, S. L., and Cerdin, J. L. (2005). “Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Cultural Adjustment for Success in Global Assignments”, Career Development International, Vol 10 (5), pp 375-395.
· Godse, A. S., and Thingujam, N. S. (2010). “Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Resolution Styles among Information Technology Professionals: Testing the Mediating Role of Personality”, Singapore Management Review, Vol 32 (1), pp 69-83.
· Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books, New York.
· Ismail, Azman., Suh-Suh, Yeo, Ajis, Mohd Na’eim., and Dollah, Noor Faizzah (2009). “Relationship between Occupational Stress, Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance: An Empirical Study in Malaysia,” AGER, Vol 10, pp 3- 16.
· Jennings, S., and Palmer, B. R. (2007). “Enhancing Sales Performance through Emotional Intelligence Development”, Organisations and People, Vol 14 (2), pp 55-61.
· Jordan, P. J., and Troth, A. C. (2004). “Managing Emotions during Team Problem Solving: Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Resolution”, Human Performance, Vol 17 (2), pp 195-218.
· Kafetsios, K., and Zampetakis, L. A. (2008). “Emotional Intelligence and Job satisfaction: Testing the Mediatory Role of Positive and Negative Affect at Work”, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol 44 (3), pp 710-720.
· Kakkar, Gaurav (2004). Role of Emotions in Human Resource Management, PhD Thesis, Punjabi University, Patiala.
· Kaur, Navjot (2003). “Occupational Role Stress on Bank Managers’’, Shimla Management Journal, Vol 3 (1).
· Khokhar, C. P., and Kush, Tulika (2009). “Emotional Intelligence and Work Performance among Executives”, Europe’s Journal of Psychology, www.ejop.org/archives/Emotional%20intelligence.pdf.
· Kulshrestha, Usha, and Sen, Chandrani (2006). “Subjective Well Being in Relation to Emotional Intelligence and Locus of Control among Executives”, Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, Vol 32 (2), pp 93-98.
· Lenaghan, J. A., Buda, R., and Eisner, A. B. (2007). “An Examination of the Role of Emotional Intelligence in Work and Family Conflict”, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol 11 (1), pp 76-94.
· Lopes, P. N., Grewal, D., Kadis, J., Gall, M., and Salovey, P. (2006). “Evidence that Emotional Intelligence is Related to Job Performance and Affect and Attitudes at Work”, Psicothema, Vol 18, pp 132-138.
· Lyons, J. B., and Schneider, T. R. (2005). “The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Performance”, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol 39 (4), pp 693- 703.
· Malekar, Samira (2005). Managing Human Capital: An EQ Perspective, National Conference at Institute of Technology and Management, Kharagpur, Navi Mumbai, India.
· Mandell, B., and Pherwani, S. (2003). “Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Style: A Gender Comparison”, Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol 17 (3), pp 387-404.
· McClelland, D. C. (1998). “Identifying Competencies with Behavioral-Event Interviews”, Psychological Science, Vol 9, pp 331-340.
· Momeni, N. (2009). “The Relation between Managers’ Emotional Intelligence and the Organizational Climate they Create”, Public Personnel Management, Vol 38 (2), pp 35-48.
· Nikolaou, I., and Tsaousis, I. (2002). “Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: Exploring its Effects on Occupational Stress and Organizational Commitment”, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol 10 (4), pp 327-342.
· Noyes, R. B. (2001). The Art of Leading Yourself: Tap The Power of Your Emotional Intelligence, Cypress House, Fort Bragg, CA.
· Ogińska-Bulik, Nina (2005). “Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: Exploring its Effects on Occupational Stress and Health Outcomes in Human Service
96
· Pesuric, A., and Byham, W. (1996). “The New Look in Behavior Modeling”, Training and Development, pp 25-33.
· Punia, B. K. (2005). “Impact of Demographic Variables on Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Behaviour of Corporate Executives”, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Vol 4, pp 7-22.
· Quoidbach, J., and Hansenne, M. (2009). “The Impact of Trait Emotional Intelligence on Nursing Team Performance and Cohesiveness”, Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol 25 (1), pp 23-29.
· Ramo, L. G., Saris, W. E., and Boyatzis, R. E. (2009). “The Impact of Social and Emotional Competencies on Effectiveness of Spanish Executives”, Journal of Management Development, Vol 28 (9), pp 771-793.
· Rego, A., Sousa, F., Cunha, M. P., Correia, A., and Saur, I. (2007). “Leader Self- Reported Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Employee Creativity: An Exploratory Study”, Creativity and Innovation Management Journal, Vol 16 (3), pp 250-264.
· Rosete, D., and Ciarrochi, J. (2005). “Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship to Workplace Performance Outcomes of Leadership Effectiveness”, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol 26 (5), pp 388-399.
· Salami, Samuel O. (2008). “Demographic and Psychological Factors Predicting Organizational Commitment among Industrial Workers”, Anthropologist, Vol 10 (1), pp 31-38.
· Sehgal, P. (1997). Role Stress, Coping and Job Involvement. In D. M. Pestonjee and Uday Pareek (Eds.), Studies in Organisational Role Stress and Coping, Rawat, Jaipur / New Delhi.
· Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., and Liden, R. C. (2001). “A Social Capital Theory of Career Success”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol 44, pp 219-237.
· Shahu, Rashmi, and Gole, S. V. (2008). “Effect of Job Stress and Job Satisfaction on Performance: An Empirical Study”, AIMS International Journal of Management, Vol 2 ( 3), pp 237-246.
· Shankar, Meera, and Sayeed, Omer Bin (2006). “Assessing Emotionally Intelligent Managers: Development of an Inventory and Relationship with Manager’s Professional Development”, The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol 42 (2), pp 227-251.
· Sharma, Jyoti (2005). “Emotional Intelligence as a Detriment of Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Study”, International Journal of Management Sciences, Vol 1 (2), pp 56-69.
· Singh, S. (2001). “Reengineering Organizational Culture for High Performance”, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol 37, pp 58-77.
· Singh, S. K. (2007). “Emotional Intelligence and Organisational Leadership: A Gender Study in Indian Context”, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol 1, pp 48-63.
· Singh, S. K., and Singh, S. (2008). “Managing Role Stress through Emotional Intelligence: A Study of Indian Medico Professionals”, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol 1 (4), pp 377-396.
· Singh, Sanjay Kumar (2007). “Role of Emotional Intelligence in Organizational Learning: An Empirical Study”, Singapore Management Review Online Access, Vol 29 (2), pp 55 – 74.
· Sinha, A. K., and Jain, A. K (2004). “EI: Imperative for the Organizationally Relevant Outcomes”, Psychological Studies, Vol 49, pp 81-96.
· Sjöberg, Lennart, and Littorin, Patrick (2003). “Emotional Intelligence, Personality and Sales Performance”, SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Business Administration, Center for Risk Research Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden, Vol 8.
· Slaski, M., and Cartwright, S. (2002). “Health, Performance and Emotional Intelligence: An Exploratory Study of Retail Managers”, Stress and Health, Vol 18, pp 63-68.
· Spector, P. E., and Goh, A. (2001). The Role of Emotions in the Occupational Stress Process. In P. L. Perrewe and D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Exploring Theoretical Mechanisms and Perspectives, JAI, New York.
· Spencer, L. M., and Spencer, S. M. (1993). Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance, Wiley, New York.
· Srinivasan, P. T., and George, S. (2005). A Study on Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Management Styles among Management Teachers and Students, UGC Funded Project, Department of Management Studies, University of Madras.
· Srivastva, K. B. N., and Bharamanaikar, S. R. (2004). “EI and Effective Leadership Behaviour”, Psychological Studies, Vol 49, pp 107-113.
· Stein, S. J., Papadogiannis, P., Yip, J. A., and Sitarenios, G. (2009). “Emotional Intelligence of Leaders: A Profile of Top Executives”, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol 30 (1), pp 87-101.
· Sy, T., Tram, S., and O’Hara, L. (2006). “Relation of Employee and Manager Emotional Intelligence to Job Satisfaction and Performance”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol 68 (3), pp 461-473.
· Webb, Shannon (2004). Exploring the Relationship of Emotional Intelligence to Transformational Leadership within Mentoring Relationships, PhD Thesis, University of South Florida.
· Wong, C. S., Wong, P. M., and Peng, K. Z. (2010). “Effect of Middle-Level Leader and Teacher Emotional Intelligence on School Teachers ' Job Satisfaction”, Educational Management Administration and Leadership, Vol 38 (1), pp 59- 70.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Difference in Emotional Intelligence Among Gender Essay
  • Essay about Role of Emotional Intelligence
  • Self Reflection Exercise Emotional Intelligence Essay
  • Emotional Stability Essay
  • cultural intelligence Essay
  • Do Managers Need Emotional Intelligence to Manage Successfully in the Workplace? Essay
  • “Do Managers Need Emotional Intelligence to Manage Successfully in the Workplace? Why or Why Not? “ Essay
  • Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence: a Potential Pathway for an Increased Understanding of Interpersonal Influence Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free