History and examination of the cardiovascular system
I Mitral stenosis 3
2 Mitral regurgitation 8
3 Mixed mitral valve disease 12
4 Aortic regurgitation 13
6 Mixed aortic valve lesion 23
7 Mixed mitral and aortic valve disease 24
8 Hypertension 27
9 Atrial fibrillation 31
10 Palpitations 35
11 Slow pulse rate 37
12 Gallop rhythm 39
13 Angina pectoris 41
14 Acute myocardial infarction 45
15 Jugular venous pulse 52
16 Congestive cardiac failure 54
17 Infective endocarditis 57
18 Prosthetic heart valves 61
19 Tricuspid regurgitation 64
20 Mitral valve prolapse 65
21 Ventricular septal defect 67
22 Atrial septal defect 71
23 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 75
24 Patent ductus arteriosus 78
25 Pulmonary stenosis 80
26 Dextrocardia 83
27 Coarctation of aorta 84
28 Eisenmenger syndrome 88
29 Fallot's tetralogy 91
30 Absent radial pulse 93
31 Constrictive pericarditis 95
32 Permanent cardiac pacemaker/implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 97 33 Pericardial mb 100
34 Primary pulmonary hypertension 102
35 Ebstein's anomaly 104
History and examination of the nervous system
36 Bilateral spastic paralysis (spastic paraplegia) 115
37 Hemiplegia 119
38 Ptosis and Homer's syndrome 125
39 Argyll Robertson pupil 128
40 Holmes-Adie syndrome 130
41 Homonymous hemianopia 132
42 Bitemporal hemianopia 133
43 Central scotoma 134
44 Tunnel vision 135
45 Parkinson's disease 136
46 Cerebellar syndrome 143
47 Jerky nystagmus 146
48 Speech 147
49 Expressive dysphasia 151
50 Cerebellar dysarthria 152
51 Third cranial nerve palsy 153
52 Sixth cranial nerve palsy 156
53 Seventh cranial nerve palsy - lower motor neuron type 158 54 Tremors 161
55 Peripheral neuropathy 164
56 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (peroneal muscular atrophy) 166 57 Dystrophia myotonica 168
58 Proximal myopathy 171
59 Deformity of a lower limb 172
60 Multiple sclerosis 175
61 Abnormal gait 180
62 Wasting of the small muscles of the hand 182
63 Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (Landouzy-D4j6rine syndrome) 183 64 Limb girdle dystrophy 185
65 Myasthenia gravis 186
66 Thomsen's disease (myotonia congenita) 190
67 Friedreich's ataxia 191
68 Motor neuron disease 193
69 Neurofibromatosis 196
70 Syringomyelia 199
71 Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord 202
72 Tabes dorsalis 205
73 Ulnar nerve palsy 207
74 Lateral popliteal nerve palsy, L4, L5 (common peroneal nerve palsy) 210 75 Carpal tunnel syndrome 212
77 Chorea 215
78 Hemiballismus 218
79 Orofacial dyskinesia 219
80 Internuclear ophthalmoplegia 220
81 Cerebellopontine angle tumour 222
82 Jugular foramen syndrome 224
83 Pseudobulbar palsy 226
84 Bulbar palsy 227
85 Wallenberg's syndrome (lateral medullary syndrome) 228
86 Winging of the scapula 230
87 Becker muscular dystrophy 231
88 Tetraplegia 233
89 Brown-Sdquard syndrome 236
90 Cauda equina syndrome 237
91 Torsion dystonia (dystonia musculorum deformans) 239
92 Epilepsy 240
93 Guillain-Barre syndrome 243
94 Multiple system atrophy 244
95 Neurological bladder 246
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 249
history and examination of tiic chest
96 Pleural effusion 251
97 Pleural rub 256
98 Asthma 258
99 Chronic bronchitis 261
100 Bronchiectasis 266
101 Cor pulmonale 269
102 Consolidation 271
103 Bronchogenic carcinoma 274
104 Cystic fibrosis 277
105 Fibrosing alveolitis 281
106 Pulmonary fibrosis 284
107 Pneumothorax 286
108 Old tuberculosis 288
109 Pickwickian syndrome 290
110 Collapsed lung 292
History and examination of the abdomen
111 Hepatomegaly 297
112 Cirrhosis of the liver 299
113 Jaundice 301
114 Ascites 304
115 Haemochromatosis 307
116 Primary biliary cirrhosis 310
117 Wilson's disease 313
118 Splenomegaly 315
119 Felty's syndrome 318
120 Polycystic kidneys 320
121 Transplanted kidney 324
122 Abdominal aortic aneurysm 327
123 Unilateral palpable kidney 329
124 Abdominal masses 330
General guidelines for examination of joints
125 Rheumatoid hands 336
126 Ankylosing spondylitis 340
127 Psoriatic arthritis 343
128 Painful knee joint 344
129 Osteoarthrosis 345
130 Gout 347
131 Charcot'sjoint 349
132 Still's disease 350
Examination of the thyroid
133 Graves' disease 355
134 Exophthalmos 359
135 Hypothyroidism 362
136 Multinodular goitre 367
137 Addison's disease 369
138 Acromegaly 372
139 Hypopituitarism (Simmonds' disease) 375
140 Gynaecomastia 377
141 Carpopedal spasm (post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism) 379 142 Carcinoid syndrome 381
143 Obesity 382
144 Cushing's syndrome 385
145 Maculopapular rash 389
146 Purpura 390
147 Psoriasis 392
148 Bullous eruption 396
149 Henoch-Schoenlein purpura 399
150 Ichthyosis 401
151 Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber disease) 403 152 Herpes labialis 406
153 Herpes zoster syndrome (shingles) 408
154 Lichen planus 411
155 Vitiligo 412
156 Raynaud's phenomenon 415
157 Systemic lupus erythematosus 417
158 Phlebitis migrans 421
159 Erythema multiforme 423
160 Erythema ab igne 426
161 Hirsutism 428
162 Acanthosis nigricans 431
163 Lipoatrophy 433
164 Lupus pernio 435
165 Xanthelasma 439
166 Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum 442
167 Radiotherapy marks 444
168 Tendon xanthomata 446
169 Eruptive xanthomata 448
170 Palmar xanthomata 450
171 Pseudoxanthoma elasticum 451
172 Rosacea 454
173 Dermatitis herpetiformis 456
174 Hairy leukoplakia 458
175 Kaposi's sarcoma 460
176 Peutz-Jeghers syndrome 463
177 Pyoderma gangrenosum 466
178 Sturge-Weber syndrome (encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis) 468
179 Acne vulgaris 470
180 Alopecia areata 472
181 Atopic dermatitis (eczema) 475
182 Venous ulcer 477
183 Arterial leg ulcer 478
184 Erythema nodosum 480
185 Fungal nail disease 482
186 Lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis) 484
187 Nail changes 486
188 Onycholysis 489
189 Malignant melanoma 490
190 Seborrhoeic dermatitis 493
191 Molluscum contagiosum 494
192 Urticaria 496
193 Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) 498
194 Urticaria pigmentosa 500
195 Dermatomyositis 502
196 Scleroderma 505
197 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 508
198 Tuberous sclerosis (Bourneville's or Pringle's disease) 511 199 Pretibial myxoedema 514
Examination of the fundus
200 Diabetic retinopathy 518
201 Hypertensive retinopathy 523
202 Papilloedema 525
203 Optic atrophy 529
204 Retinal vein thrombosis 531
205 Subhyaloid haemorrhage 534
206 Retinitis pigmentosa 535
207 Old choroiditis 538
208 Cholesterol embolus in the fundus 539
209 Vitreous opacities 542
210 Myelinated nerve fibres 543
211 Retinal changes in AIDS 544
212 Retinal detachment 546
213 Age-related macular degeneration (senile macular degeneration) 548 MISCELLANEOUS 553
Examination of the foot
214 Diabetic foot 554
215 Swollen leg l: deep vein thrombosis 556
216 Swollen leg Il: cellulitis 559
217 Clubbing 561
218 Dupuytren's contracture 563
219 Cataracts 565
220 Anaemia 567
221 Lymphadenopathy 569
222 Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia 573
223 Crohn's disease 575
224 Dysphagia 577
225 Diarrhoea 578
226 Marfan's syndrome 580
227 Nephrotic syndrome 583
228 Uraemia 585
229 Paget's disease 588
230 Parotid enlargement 591
231 Superior vena caval obstruction 593
232 Glass eye 595
233 Turner's syndrome 596
234 Yellow nail syndrome 598
235 Osteogenesis imperfecta 599
236 Down's syndrome 600
237 Late congenital syphilis 602
238 Arteriovenous fistula 603
239 Carotid artery aneurysm 605
240 Retro-orbital tumour 606
241 Achondroplasia 607
242 Breast lump 608
243 Gingival hypertrophy 612
244 HaemophiliaA 613
245 Klinefelter's syndrome 614
246 Macroglossia 616
247 Osteoporosis of the spine (dowager's hump) 618
248 Pressure sores (bedsores) 620
249 Sickle cell disease 622
250 Thrush 624
1. Chest pain: exertional, at rest (when angina is present, comment on the Canadian Cardiovascular Angina class, p. 42).
2. Shortness of breath: exertional, at rest (when dyspnoea is present, comment on the New York Heart Association class, p. 2), paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea.
3. Palpitations (see pp 35-6)
4. Dizziness, pre-syncope, syncope.
5. Swelling of feet.
EXAMINATION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
1. Introduce yourself: 'I am Dr/Mr/Ms ............ May I examine your heart?'. 2. Ensure adequate exposure of the precordium: 'Would you take your top off, please?'. However, be sensitive of the feelings of female patients.
3. Get the patient to sit at 45 degrees - use pillows to support the neck. 4. Inspection: comment on the patient's decubitus (whether he or she is comfort-able at rest or obviously short of breath); comment on malar flush (seen in mitral stenosis). 5. Examine the pulse: rate (count for 15 s), rhythm, character, volume; lift the arm to feel for the collapsing pulse. Feel the other radial pulse simultaneously. 6. Comment on the scar at antecubital fossa (cardiac catheterization scars). 7. Look at the tongue for pallor, central cyanosis.
8. Look at the eye for pallor, Argyll Robertson pupil.
9. Examine the jugular venous pulse: comment on the wave form and height from the sternal angle.
Check the abdominojugular reflux.
10. Comment on any carotid pulsations (Corrigan's sign of aortic regurgitation). 11. Examine the precordium: comment on surgical scars (midline sternotomy scars, thoracotomy scars for mitral valvotomy may be missed under the female breast). 12. Feel the apex beat - position and character.
13. Feel for left parasternal heave and thrills at the apex and on either side of the sternum. 14. Listen to the heart, beginning from the apex: take care to palpate the right carotid pulse simultaneously so that the examiner notices that you are timing the various cardiac events. · Always comment on the first and second heart sounds. Mention any additional heart sounds (Am J Med 1959; 27: 360).
· If you do not hear the mid-diastolic murmur of mitral stenosis, make sure you listen to the apex in the left lateral position with the bell of the stethoscope.
· If you hear a murmur at the apex, ensure that you get the patient to breathe in and out - the examiner will be observing whether or not you are listening for the variation in intensity with respiration. · If you hear a pansystolic murmur, listen at the axilla (mitral regurgitant murmurs are conducted to the axilla).
15. Using the diaphragm of your stethoscope, listen at the apex, below the sternum, along the left sternal edge, the second right intercostal space and the neck (for ejection systolic murmur of aortic stenosis, aortic sclerosis).
16. Request the patient to sit forward and listen with the diaphragm along the left sternal edge in the 3rd intercostal area with the patient's breath held in expiration for early diastolic murmur of aortic regurgitation.
17. Tell the examiner that you would like to do the following: · Listen to lung bases for signs of cardiac failure. · Check for sacral and leg oedema.
Examine the liver (tender liver of cardiac failure), splenomegaly (endocarditis). ·
Check the blood pressure.
Check the peripheral pulses and also check for radiofemoral delay. The New York Heart Association classification of dyspnoea:
Class l Asymptomatic (shortness of breath on unaccustomed exertion). · Class ll: There is slight limitation of physical activity and patients develop shortness of breath on accustomed exertion.
· Class III Marked limitation of physical activity; patients develop shortness of breath on activities of daily living such as having a shower, etc.
· Class IV: Inability to carry out physical activity; shortness of breath at rest. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec invented the stethoscope in 1816 and reported his early experience with auscultation in a two-volume book published 3 years later (Laennec RTH 1821 A Treatise on the Diseases of the Chest. London: T and G Underwood. Translated by and with a preface and notes by John Forbes).
British physician Sir John Forbes (1787-1861) is best remembered for popularizing the stethoscope among English-speaking doctors. Forbes was born in Banff in the north east of Scotland. He studied at Marischal College, Aberdeen, before he went to Edinburgh where he received his medical education. Forbes translated Laennec's monograph in English in 1821 and published his own book on the subject in 1824 (Forbes J 1824 Original Cases with Dissections and Observations Illustrating the Use of the Stethoscope and Percussion in the Diagnosis of the Diseases of the Chest. London: T and G Underwood). The latter included a brief biographical sketch of the Austrian physician Leopald Auenbrugger and the first English translation of his essay (which was in Latin) on percussion. It also contained a summary of Parisian physician Victor Collin's recent manual on cardiac physical diagnosis.
This patient developed dyspnoea and orthopnoea during pregnancy, please examine her. This 55-year old patient has atrial fibrillation, please perform the relevant clinical examination. SALIENT FEATURES
Symptoms of left-sided heart failure: exertional dyspnoea, orthopnoea, paroxysmal dyspnoea. ·
Less frequent symptoms: haemoptysis, hoarseness of voice, symptoms of right-sided failure (these symptoms are somewhat more specific for mitral stenosis).
Obtain a history of rheumatic fever in childhood.
· Pulse regular or irregularly irregular (due to atrial fibrillation). · Jugular venous pressure (JVP) may be raised. · Malar flush.
· Tapping apex beat in the 5th intercostal space just medial to midclavicular line. · Left parasternal heave (indicating right ventricular enlargement). · Loud first heart sound. ·
Opening snap (often difficult to hear; a high-pitched sound that can vary from 0.04 to 0.10 s after the second sound, and is best heard at the apex with the patient in the lateral decubitus position). ·
Rumbling, low-pitched, mid-diastolic murmur - best heard in the left lateral position on expiration. In sinus rhythm there may be presystolic accentuation of the murmur. If you are not sure about the murmur, tell the examiner that you want the patient to perform sit-ups or hop on one foot to increase the heart rate. This will increase the flow across the mitral valve and the murmur is better heard. ·
Pulmonary component of second sound (P2) is loud.
Remember. The signs of pulmonary hypertension include loud P2, right ventricular lift, elevated neck veins, ascites and oedema. This is an ominous sign of the disease progression because pulmonary hypertension increases the risk associated with surgery (Bt Heart J 1975; 37: 74-8).
In patients with valvular lesions the candidate would be expected to comment on rhythm, the presence of heart failure and signs of pulmonary hypertension. In atrial septal defect, large flow murmurs across the tricuspid valve can cause mid-diastolic murmurs. The presence of wide, fixed splitting of second sound,
absence of loud first heart sound, and an opening snap and incomplete right bundle branch block should indicate the correct diagnosis. However, about 4% of patients with atrial septal defect have mitral stenosis, a combination called Lutembacher's syndrome.
This patient has mitral stenosis (lesion) which is almost always due to rheumatic heart disease (aetiology), and has atrial fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension and congestive cardiac failure (functional status).
What is the commonest cause of mitral stenosis?
Rheumatic heart disease.
What is the mechanism of tapping apex beat?
It is due to an accentuated first heart sound.
What does the opening snap indicate?
The opening snap is caused by the opening of the stenosed mitral valve and indicates that the leaflets are
pliable. The opening snap is usually accompanied by a loud first heart sound. It is absent when the valve is diffusely calcified. When only the tips of the leaflets are calcified, the opening snap persists.
What is the mechanism of a loud first heart sound?
The loud first heart sound occurs when the valve leaflets are mobile. The valve is open during diastole and is suddenly slammed shut by ventficular contraction in systole.
What is the mechanism of presystolic accentuation of the murmur? In sinus rhythm it is due to the atrial systole which increases flow across the stenotic valve from the left atrium to the left ventricle; this causes accentuation of the loudness of the murmur. This may also be seen in atrial fibrillation and is explained by the turbulent flow caused by the mitral valve starting to close with the onset of ventricular systole. This occurs before the first heart sound and gives the impression of falling in late diastole; it is, however, due to the start of ventricular systole.
What are the complications?
· Left atrial enlargement and atrial fibrillation.
· Systemic embolization, usually of the cerebral hemispheres. · Pulmonary hypertension.
· Tricuspid regurgitation.
· Right heart failure.
How does one determine clinically the severity of the stenosis? ·
The narrower the distance between the second sound and the opening snap, the greater the severity. The converse is not true. (Note. This time interval between the second sound and opening snap is said to be inversely related to the left atrial pressure.)
in tight mitral stenosis the murmur may be less prominent or inaudible and the findings may be primarily those of pulmonary hypertension.
What are the investigations you would perform?
Broad bifid P wave (P mitrale); atrial fbrillation in advanced disease.
· Congested upper lobe veins.
· Double silhouette due to enlarged left atrium.
Straightening of the left border of the heart due to prominent pulmonary conus and filling of the pulmonary bay by the enlarged left atrium.
Kerley B lines (horizontal lines in the regions of the costophrenic angles). ·
Uncommonly the left bronchus may be horizontal due to an enlarged left atrium. ·
Mottling due to secondary pulmonary haemosiderosis.
2D and Doppler echocardiography is the diagnostic tool of choice for assessing the severity of mitral stenosis and for judging the applicability of balloon mitral valvotomy (N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 3241). · It is able to identify restricted diastolic opening of the mitral valve leaflets due to 'doming' of the anterior leaflet and immobility of the posterior leaflet.
· It also allows assessment of the mitral valve apparatus and left atrial enlargement. · Echocardiography usually permits an accurate planimetric calculation of the valve area (Am J Cardiol 1979; 43: 560-8). ·
It can also be used to assess the severity of stenosis by measuring the decay of the transvalvular gradient or the 'pressure half-time', an empirical measurement (BrHeartJ 1978; 40: 13140). ·
The mean transmitral gradient can be accurately and reproducibly measured from continuous wave Doppler signal across the mitral valve with the modified Bernoulli equation. ·
The mitral valve area can be non-invasively derived from Doppler echocardio-graphy with either the
diastolic half-time method or the continuity equation. The continuity equation should be used when the area derived from the half-time does not correlate with the mean transmittal gradient. Doppler also allows estimation of pulmonary artery systolic pressure from the TR velocity signal and assessment of the severity of concomitant MR or AR.
Trans-oesophageal echocardiography is not required unless a question about diagnosis remains after transthoracic echocardiography.
Shows raised right heart pressures and an end-diastolic gradient from pulmonary artery wedge pressure (or left atrium if trans-septal puncture has been done) to the left ventricle. Left and right heart cardiac catheterization is indicated when percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy is being considered.
Cardiac catheterization is also indicated when there is a discrepancy between Doppler-derived haemodynamics and the clinical status of a symptomatic patient. Coronary angiography may be required in selected patients who need intervention. Exercise haemodynamics should be performed when the symptoms are out of proportion to the calculated mitral valve gradient area.
What is the normal cross-sectional area of the mitral valve? It ranges from 4 to 6 em2; turbulent flow occurs when this area is less than 2 cm2.
What is the area in 'tight' mitral stenosis?
It is usually less than 1 cm2 and consequently the gradient across the valve is >10 mmHg.
How would you manage the patient?
Asymptomatic patient in sinus rhythm: prophylaxis against infective endocarditis only. Mild symptoms: diuretics to reduce left atrial pressure and therefore symptoms. Atrial fibrillation: (1) rate control (digitalis, beta-blocker or calcium channel blocker); (2) anticoagulants (Eur Heart J 1988; 9: 291-4).
Moderate to severe symptoms or pulmonary hypertension is beginning to develop: mechanical relief of valve stenosis including (1) balloon valvotomy (N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 961-7; Br Heart J 1988; 60: 299-308) - percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty is usually the procedure of choice when there is a non-calcified pliable valve; (2) surgery.
What are the indications for surgery?
Patients with severe symptoms of pulmonary congestion and significant mitral stenosis. Patients with pulmonary hypertension or haemoptysis, even if minimally symptomatic. Recurrent thromboembolic events despite therapeutic anticoagulation.
Which surgical procedures are used to treat mitral stenosis? Closed commissurotomy
Closed mitral valvotomy - involves the use of mechanical dilators, inserted through the apex of the left ventricle. It is complicated by mitral regurgitation, systemic embolization and restenosis. Balloon valvuloplasty (a form of closed commissurotomy) - percutaneous trans-septal balloon mitral valvotomy (or valvuloplasty). Remember, percutaneous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a useful option in patients who are unable to undergo cardiac surgery, as in late pregnancy or when too ill (severe respiratory disease, non-mitral cardiac disease, multiorgan failure).
Requires cardiopulmonary bypass and allows surgical repair of the valve under direct vision, resulting in more effective and safer valvotomy than the closed procedure.
Entails risks including thromboembolism, endocarditis and primary valve failure.
What factors determine the success of balloon valvuloplasty?
· Good mobility ofthe valves.
· Little calcification
· Minimal subvalvular disease.
· Mild mitral regurgitation.
In which trimester do patients with mitral stenosis usually become symptomatic? Patients usually become symptomatic in the second trimester of pregnancy, when blood volume increases significantly and increases pulmonary pressures. As the blood volume diminishes late in the third trimester, the symptoms might slightly improve.
Mention some rarer causes of mitral stenosis.
· Calcification of mitral annulus and leatlets.
· Rheumatoid arthritis.
· Systemic lupus erythematosus.
· Malignant carcinoid.
· Congenital stenosis.
Which conditions simulate mitral stenosis?
· Left atrial myxoma.
· Ball valve thrombus in the left atrium.
Cor triatriatum (a rare congenital heart condition where a thin membrane across the left atrium obstructs pulmonary venous flow).
Have you heard of Ortner's syndrome?
It refers to the hoarseness of voice caused by left vocal cord paralysis associated with enlarged left atrium in mitral stenosis.
N. Ortner(1865-1935), Professor of Medicine, Vienna, described the syndrome in 1897. He believed in laboratory research and its application to bedside clinical work and said that the clinician's motto ought to be '0bers laboratorium dauernd zur Klinik' (translated: 'always via the laboratory to the clinic'). P.J. Kerley (1900-1978), British radiologist.
Paul Wood was a cardiologist at the Hammersmith and National Heart Hospitals. His clinical skills are legendary and he had a profound influence on British cardiology. Elliott Cutler, in 1923 in Boston, was the first to attempt surgical treatment of mitral stenosis by inserting a knife through the apex of the left ventricle and blindly cutting the valve at right angles to its natural orifice. Henry Souttar, in 1925, relieved mitral stenosis with a finger inserted through the atrial appendage. In 1948, four surgeons working independently performed successful valvotomies: Horace Smithy, Charles Bailey, Dwight Harken and Russell Brock.
In 1984, Kanji Inoue from Japan and in 1985, James E Lock, contemporary Professor of Pediatric Cardiology, Harvard Medical School, and colleagues introduced balloon valvuloplasty for mitral stenosis.
Examine this patient's heart.
· Asymptomatic or mild symptoms: often. · Dyspnoea (due to pulmonary congestion). · Fatigue (due to low cardiac output).
· Palpitation (due to atrial fibrillation or LV dysfunction). · Fluid retention (in late-stage disease).
Obtain a history of myocardial infarction, rheumatic fever, connective tissue dis-order, infective endocarditis.
· Peripheral pulse may be normal or jerky (i.e. rapid upstroke with a short duration). Apex beat will be displaced downwards and outwards and will be forceful in character. First heart sound will be soft.
Third heart sound is common (left ventricular gallop sound). Pansystolic murmur (Hope murmur) conducted to the axilla, best detected with the diaphragm and on expiration. (Note. It is important to be sure that there is no associated tricuspid regurgitation.) Loud pulmonary second sound and left parasternal heave when there is associated pulmonary hypertension.
Note. When mitral regurgitation is caused by left ventricular dilatation and dim-inished cardiac contractility, the systolic murmur may be mid, late or pansystolic. Other causes of short systolic murmurs at the apex include mitral valve prolapse, papillary muscle dysfunction and aortic stenosis. In calcific aortic stenosis of the elderly, the murmur may be more prominent in the apex and may be confused with mitral regurgitation. In such instances try to listen to the murmur after a pause with pre-mature beat or listen to the beat after a pause with atrial fibrillation. The murmur of aortic stenosis becomes louder, whereas that of mitral regurgitation shows little change. DIAGNOSIS
This patient has mitral regurgitation (lesion) as evidenced by grade III/VI pan-systolic murmur, which is probably due to ischaemic or rheumatic heart disease (aetiology), and is in cardiac failure as evidenced by bibasal crackles (functional status). The patient is in NYHA class III heart failure. QUESTIONS
Mention some causes of chronic mitral regurgitation.
· Mitral valve prolapse.
· Rheumatic heart disease.
· Left ventricular dilatation.
· Coronary artery disease.
· Annular calcification.
· Infective endocarditis.
· Papillary muscle dysfunction.
· Connective tissue disorders.
Mention a few causes of acute mitral regurgitation.
· Acute myocardial infarction (rupture of the papillary muscle). · Endocarditis (due to perforation of the mitral valve leaflet or the chordae). · Trauma.
· Myxomatous degeneration of the valve.
How would you investigate this patient?
Electrocardiography (ECG), looking for broad bifid P waves (P mitrale), left ventricular hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation. When coronary artery disease is the cause, there is often evidence of inferior or posterior wall myocardial infarction.
Chest radiograph, looking for pulmonary congestion, large heart, left atrial en-largement and pulmonary artery enlargement (if severe and longstanding).
Echocardiogram to determine the anatomy of the mitral valve apparatus, left atrial and left ventricular size and function (typical features include large left atrium, large left ventricle, increased fractional shortening, regurgitant jet on colour Doppler, leaflet prolapse, floppy valve or flail leaflet). The echocardiogram provides baseline estimation of left ventricle and left atrial volume, an estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction, and an approximation of the severity of regurgitation. It can be helpful to determine the anatomic cause of MR. In the presence of even mild TR, an estimate of pulmonary artery pressure can be obtained.
Trans-oesophageal echocardiography is useful in those in whom transthoracic echocardiography provides non-diagnostic images. It may give better visual-ization of mitral valve prolapse. It is useful intraoperatively to establish the anatomic basis for MR and to guide repair. ·
Cardiac catheterization is useful to determine coexistent coronary artery or aortic valve disease. Large 'v' waves are seen in the wedge tracing. Left ventriculogram and haemodynamic measurements are indicated when non-invasive tests are inconclusive regarding the severity of MR, LV function, or the need for surgery.
How would you differentiate between mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation ?
Why may these patients have a jerky pulse?
Because of reduced systolic ejection time, secondary to a large volume of blood regurgitating into the left atrium.
When does the murmur of mitral regurgitation radiate to the neck (i.e. base of the heart)? Rarely, due to involvement of the posterior mitral leaflet or to ruptured chordae tendineae, the regurgitant jet strikes the left atrial wall adjacent to the aortic root and the murmur radiates to the base of the heart, and therefore may be confused with the murmur of aortic stenosis.
How do you grade systolic murmurs?
Levine's grading of systolic murmurs (Ann Intern Med 1933; 6: 1371): ·
Grade 1: Murmur is so faint that it is heard only with special effort. Grade 2: Murmur is faint but readily detected.
Grade 3: Murmur is prominent but not loud.
Grade 4: Murmur is loud.
Grade 5: Murmur is very loud.
Grade 6: Murmur is loud enough to be heard with the stethoscope just removed from contact with the chest wall.
What are the causes of pansystolic murmur over the precordium? · Mitral regurgitation.
· Tricuspid regurgitation.
· Ventricular septal defect (this generally radiates to the right of the sternum). ADVANCED-LEVEL QUESTIONS
Which congenital cardiac conditions can be associated with mitral valve regurgitation ? · Ostium primum atrial septal defect (due to cleft mitral valve). · Partial atrioventricular canal.
· Corrected transposition of the great arteries.
How would you determine the severity of the lesion?
· The larger the left ventricle on clinical examination, the greater the severity. · An S3 suggests that the disease is severe.
Colour Doppler ultrasonography quantifies the severity of the regurgitant jet, usually into three grades. However, echocardiography provides only a semi-quantitative estimate of the severity of regurgitation. Left ventriculography performed during cardiac catheterization provides an additional but also im-perfect estimate of the severity of mitral regurgitation. ·
Prognosis is worsened if right ventricular function is reduced, and patients with a right ventricular ejection fraction of 70 mm or end-systolic dimension >50 mm) have a 10-20% risk of developing symptoms and hence should have serial echocardiograms every 4 months (Circulation 1998; 98: 1949-84).
Patients who have had valve replacement should also be seen regularly and monitored for signs of failure of the aortic valve prosthesis (particularly in patients with biological valves) and endocarditis (Circulation 1998; 98:1949-84).
Alfred de Musset was a French poet whose nodding movements were described by his brother in a biography. When told of this, Alfred put his thumb and forefinger on his neck and his head stopped bobbing.
Austin Flint (1812-1886) was one of the founders of Buffalo Medical College, New York, and reported the murmur in two patients with aortic regurgitation, confirmed by autopsy. He also held chairs at New Orleans, Chicago, Louisville and New York.
H.I. Quincke (1842-1922) was a German physician who described angioneurotic oedema and benign intracranial hypertension.
RI. Duroziez (1826-1897), a French physician, was widely acclaimed for his articles on mitral stenosis. L. Traube (1818-1876), a German physician, was the first to describe pulsus bigeminus. Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723) was an Italian anatomist and surgeon who discovered the labyrinth and developed the Valsalva manoeuvre to remove foreign bodies from the ear.
Examine this patient's heart.
· Asymptomatic (many patients do not have symptoms).
· Angina (in -70% of adults average survival after onset of angina is 5 years). Syncope (in 25% of patients, during or immediately after exercise; average survival after onset of
syncope ix 3 years).
Dyspnoea is a common presenting symptom (suggests left ventricular dys-function; heart failure reduces life expectancy to less than 2 years).
Low volume pulse. It is reduced in volume with a delayed upstroke (pulsus parvus et tardus). This is due to a reduction in systolic pressure and a gradual decline in diastolic pressure. Normal pulse in mild aortic stenosis when the gradient is 1.5 cm2), moderate (area >1.0 to 1.5 cm2) or severe (area