MAN 719: ACTION TASK 5
Ronna Maposa: 3317920
Table of Contents
1.2 The Seven Elements of culture2
1.3 Market places in terms of the seven elements4
2.0 Religion and Culture6
Culture has been defined by Lederach (1995) as shared knowledge and schemes created by a set of people for perceiving, interpreting, expressing and responding to the social realities around them. Simply put, it is the learned and shared behaviour of a community of people. These behaviours are considered the correct way to feel, think and act, and are passed on to new members. Culture determines what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant and right or wrong. South Africa is a nation that is very accepting of people of different cultural persuasions allowing businesses and religious institutions to promote a wide variety of exciting shopping and religious experiences. 1.2 The Seven elements of culture
There are a number of issues that businesses need to consider when internationalising and expanding their operations into new cultures. They may need to reconsider their marketing and human resource management, or even reconsider their product in order to comply with social-cultural norms. A contemporary approach to cultural issues in management divides culture into the following aspects:
Source: Hannagan (2005)
This is when a culture organises its members into smaller groups. These smaller groups could include families, friends, religious groups, social classes, occupation and interest groups. Family is considered the most important unit of social organisation and can be organised either into a nuclear family or an extended family. Social classes rank people in order of status, depending on what is important to that particular culture for example ancestry, or education. Religion
This is a system which helps people answer questions about the meaning and purpose of life. Religion supports values that cultures feel are important and also influence how people behave toward each other. Traditionally, religions have been categorised as one of three types: monotheistic (a belief in one god), polytheistic (a belief in many gods) and animistic (traditional, with a belief in the divine forces in nature). Language
Language is important for communication and passing on traditional beliefs. It is the cornerstone of culture, as all cultures have a spoken language, and people who speak the same language often share the same culture. Law and politics
People form governments in order to provide for their common needs, keep order within society, and protect their society form outside threats. Government can be defined as the people or person who holds power in a society. Types of governments include democratic (people have supreme power), republican (people choose leaders who represent them) and dictatorships (ruler holds power by force). Values and attitudes
Values are measures of worth or importance people attach to something, and are often reflected in the way people live their lives. Attitudes are the ways in which people express or apply their values, mainly through words and behaviour. If attitudes are based on incorrect assumptions, they may create inflexibility and stereotypes. Values can either be personal, or social, and government by constructs such as morals, taboos and folkways. Technology and material culture
Technology is the combination of physical objects and the rules for using those objects. Material culture is a term used to describe the objects produced by human beings- including tools, weapons and utensils in society. These are aspects of culture that appear as physical objects. Humans impress their culture on the things they make and in the ways in which they do things. Technology therefore becomes an expression of culture (Carroll (1983). Aesthetics
Aesthetics are the...
References: 1.1 Introduction
Culture has been defined by Lederach (1995) as shared knowledge and schemes created by a set of people for perceiving, interpreting, expressing and responding to the social realities around them
A contemporary approach to cultural issues in management divides culture into the following aspects:
Source: Hannagan (2005)
2. Hannagan, T. (2005). Globalisation and Multinational Management. In: Management: Concepts and Practices. Harlow: Pearson Education.
3. Lederach, J.P. (1995) Preparing for peace: Conflict transformation across cultures. New York: Syracuse University Press.
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