Elements of Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)- Any stimulus that is capable of reflexive response. Unconditioned Response UR An innate (in-born, automatic) reflex response elicited or reflex triggered by an unconditioned stimulus (food). Conditioned Stimulus (CS)-A stimulus that evokes/triggers a response because it has been repeatedly paired/associated with an unconditional stimulus (bell) Conditioned Response (CR)- A learned response elicited or triggered by a conditioned stimulus. (Salivation) Neutral Stimulus (NS)- A stimulus that does not evoke/trigger a response. Basic Principle of Conditioning
Extinction. is when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus. for example, if the smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) had been paired with the sound of a whistle (the conditioned stimulus), it would eventually come to evoke the conditioned response of hunger. However, if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear. Generalization and Discrimination- Two other principles were discovered by Pavlov which are important in understanding learning in these are: stimulus generalization and discrimination learning. *Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus. for example, if a bell tone were the conditioned stimulus, discrimination would involve being able to tell the difference between the bell tone and other similar sounds. *Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. For example, if a child has been conditioned to fear a stuffed white rabbit, the child will exhibit fear...
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