Electronics Microprocessor

Topics: Health care, Health, Public health Pages: 104 (32369 words) Published: June 18, 2013
Contents
Foreword ........................................................................... iii Introductory note for teachers........................................... vii Teacher’s note on evaluation ............................................... x Unit One: Equality in Indian Democracy .......................... 2 Chapter 1: On Equality .................................................... 4 Unit Two: State Government ......................................... 16 Chapter 2: Role of the Government in Health ................. 18 Chapter 3: How the State Government Works ................ 30 Unit Three: Gender ...................................................... 42 Chapter 4: Growing up as Boys and Girls ...................... 44 Chapter 5: Women Change the World ............................ 54 Unit Four: Media and Advertising .................................. 68 Chapter 6: Understanding Media ................................... 70 Chapter 7: Understanding Advertising ........................... 80 Unit Five: Markets ....................................................... 92 Chapter 8: Markets Around Us ...................................... 94 Chapter 9: A Shirt in the Market .................................. 104 Equality in Indian Democracy (continued) Chapter 10: Struggles for Equality ............................... 114 References ................................................................... 122

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UNIT ONE

2

Equality in Indian Democracy

Teacher’s note
This Unit introduces the learner to the critical role of equality in democracy, with specific reference to India. The Constitution of India guarantees equality to all citizens. Despite this, the daily lives of people in India are far from equal. Earlier discussions on equality in Civics textbooks most often reiterated certain provisions of the Constitution without adequately considering the reality of these in people’s lives. This Unit adopts a different approach. It discusses the need for equality through highlighting the inequalities that continue to be practised and experienced by various communities. The first chapter introduces the learner to Kanta, Omprakash Valmiki and the Ansaris, all of whom experience inequality in different ways. It is through their experiences that we introduce the concept of dignity. The government’s role in passing laws and instituting policies is discussed to show that commitment to the alleviation of existing inequalities is a major part of the work that governments undertake. The chapter also briefly introduces an issue of inequality in the United States of America to highlight that this is a global phenomenon and a feature of many democratic countries. The second chapter of this Unit is Chapter 10 of this book. It ties together the main ideas on equality raised throughout the text. A significant portion of the last chapter is devoted to discussing people’s contribution to the fight for equality. This is achieved through focusing on one social movement as well as highlighting creative (writings, songs, poems) ways through which people express their demands for equality. Both chapters aim to help the learner understand that equality and democracy are dynamic and not static concepts. This dynamism is reflected in the government’s passing of new laws and programmes, and in people’s movements around various social and economic issues. Kanta, Omprakash, the Ansaris, and the Tawa Matsya Sangh all have diverse local equivalents. Local situations should be used as a practical reference to make the discussion on underlying concepts more relevant and appropriate. A discussion on equality in the classroom requires empathy as well as a firm commitment on the teacher’s part to ensuring that the dignity of all learners be respected.

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Manjit Kaur Teacher Teja Singh Trader Girish Rao Student Kanta Devi Domestic worker Sujata Kumari Domestic worker On election day, Kanta and her friend Sujata are waiting to cast...

References: Dreze, Jean and Aparajita Goyal. 2003. ‘Future of Mid-day Meals’. In Economic and Political Weekly. Hossein, Sakhwat Rokeya. 1905. (reprint) 1988. Sultana’s Dream . Feminist Press, New York. Kumar. Krishna. 1986. “Growing Up Male” in Seminar 318. Mazumdar, Indrani. 2007. Women and Globalization: The Impact on Women Workers in the Formal and Informal Sectors in India. Stree, Kolkata. Mead, Margaret. 1928, 1973. (edition) Growing Up In Samoa. American Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C. Parks, Rosa. 2000. Quiet Strength. Grand Rapids, Zondervan, Michigan. Rashsundari Devi. 1999. Words to Win. Translated and with an introduction by Tanika Sarkar. Zubaan, New Delhi. Roy, Tirthankar. 1999. ‘Growth and Recession in Small-Scale Industry: A Study of Tamil Nadu Powerlooms’ Economic and Political Weekly. Valmiki, Omprakash. 2003. Joothan: A Dalit’s Life. SAMYA, Kolkata. Zubaan. 1996. Poster Women: A Visual History of the Women’s Movement in India. Zubaan, New Delhi.
122 Social and Political Life
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www.cehat.org/rthc/policybrieffinal.pdf www.infochangeindia.org
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