Background of Study
As early as 2600 BC, games are universal part of human experience and present in all countries as part their cultures. Games are usually for enjoyment, leisure, and sometimes used as educational tool. Key components of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games generally involve mental and physical stimulation, and often both. Games can take a variety of forms, from competitive sports to board games and video games. One of the famous board game is the Chess which is a mind of game and strategy. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known board games (“Game”, 2011). In the Philippines, Filipinos have many traditional games. Games that commonly play by children usually using native materials or instruments. Among these games are Patintero, Tumbang Preso, Syatong, Sipa, Turumpo, Chinese Garter, Luksong Tinik, Luksong Baka, and Sungka. Most of the games started in rural province at the turn of the 20th century, and brought to the city suburbs role in the early 1950’s. Traditional games had a socializing the Filipino community. According to Armando Malay, one of the first Filipinos to document traditional in the country through his book Games of the Philippines, “Filipinos like to play games, one index to their sociability. Games bring members of the family together after their respective chores have been done in the neighborhood; they strengthen the ties that bind families.” But traditional Filipino games are slowly getting lost. As today’s kids are becoming more and more adept with technology, spending more times with their electronic gadgets and even getting their own accounts in social networking sites, the less they are able to play outdoors. But the popularity of many of the country’s traditional games has been diminishing even decades ago. In her book “A Study of Philippine Games, Mellie Leandicho Lopez has quoted E. Arsenio Manuel as repeatedly lamenting in his series on traditional games publish in Sunday Mirror Magazine from 1960 to 1961 that “Philippine games are disappearing” (Benosa, 2009). One of the traditional Filipino games that are rarely played today is the game of Sungka. Sungka, one of the games popular not only to kids but adult as well Filipinos find it enjoyable especially in the rural areas to spend time with. For as long as anyone can remember, there has always been a Sungka board in the Filipino. Sungka is popular traditional board game in the Philippine variant of a widely distributed family of board games called Mancala. Mancala is the name of a family of similar board games played on boards consisting of rows of hollows or cups, into which seeds, shells, stones or similar objects are sown. It is also known as Count and Capture Game. It is one of the oldest board games in existence and also on of the most widespread games being found all over the world. Mancala is known to date back at least 1400 years before the birth of Christ. Most historians believe Mancala originated in ancient Egypt. Form Egypt, the game spread to the nearby areas of Africa and the Middle East with whom Egypt has trade relations. By 600 AD, Mancala began to spread further eastward into Asia. Mancala was little known in Europe until 19th century. And it was finally introduced to the New World during the time of the slave trade. The recorded history of Mancala in Southeast Asia goes back to the 17th century. The first written sources this time provided enough detail to identify it as a Mancala game. It is likely that Mancala games existed much earlier but the absence of rules makes such suggestions only speculative. The outstanding feature of Mancala games in Southeast Asia is the inclusion of each player’s store, which is enlarge hole at each of the board, among the holes in which counters are placed. Most variant of Mancala in Southeast Asia are played by two people only. One particular set of rules is shared by the players in...
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