EHAP notes

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Topics: Pope, Avignon Papacy
Mr. Dunbar
AP European History
Chapter 9: The Late Middle Ages Outline

Chapter Overview: War, Plague, and Schism
Barbara Tuchman, a prominent historian, describes the late Middle Ages as The Calamitous Fourteenth Century. Western Civilization was assaulted on several fronts including:
The Black Death (1348-1352)
The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) between France and England
Schism in the Catholic Church (1378-1417)
Invasions by the Turks
Amidst this mayhem, scholars began to criticize medieval assumptions about the nature of God, humankind, and society.
Section One: The Black Death
Section Overview:
Keep in mind that the plague struck Europe at a moment of vulnerability as the continent was overpopulated and malnourished.
Preconditions and Causes of the Plague
From 1000-1300, Europe’s population doubled
Population growth strained the food supply
Population growth led to high unemployment and low wages
Crop failures between 1315 and 1317 exacerbated the food shortage crisis
Black Death followed trade routes from Asia
Plague moved from south to north along major trade routes
Popular Remedies
Corruption in the atmosphere was believed to be the cause of the plague some blamed poisonous fumes from earthquakes
Remedies
many wore “aromatic” amulets lifestyle changes some thought moderate and temperate living would save them from the plague some indulged in excess (sexual promiscuity ran high in infected areas) others chose to flee the plague or remain in seclusion religious fanatacism flagellants Jews as scapegoats
Pogroms occurred in several cities
Social and Economic Consequences
Farms decline
Supply and demand (fewer laborers, higher wages; less demand for food, lower prices for agricultural products) many serfs demanded money payments and some pursued the more lucrative skilled craft industries in cities; the price of luxury and manufactured goods rose
Noble landholders lost power as they were forced to pay more for finished

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