Egypt and Mesopotamia Essay
Civilization is an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached by definition. Egypt and Mesopotamia are two primary models of complex and unique societies that established to be both prosperous and effective. The two greatest significant civilizations of the world developed in the same region of Middle East and North Africa, closely linked and influenced by each other. Even though, Egypt and Mesopotamia share similar aspects there are differences, which make them their own society.
The geography surrounding Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia significantly forms the differences and similarities of these civilization’s visions of life and the afterlife. The geography of Egypt and Mesopotamia were very similar but differed in major aspects such as rivers, land barriers, and resources. First of all, both societies cultivated beside great fertile rivers that carried rich deposit for growing crops; Egypt had the Nile River and Mesopotamia had the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Nile River flooded regularly and predictably, bringing fertile soil to the land of the Egyptians just in time for harvest, and kept relatively the same course. The Egyptians did not fear flooding knowing of the patterns. The Tigris and Euphrates, however, flood randomly and violently, usually before a harvest, and would wipe out communities as well as destroy progress of the people. The constant unpredictable floods in Mesopotamia gave people fear. The Egyptians had a very stable weather compared to the Mesopotamians’ chaos. Egyptian civilization was established in the rich Nile river valley and was well protected by natural land barriers. To the north of Egypt was the Mediterranean Sea as for the other surroundings was desert. Meanwhile, Mesopotamia had no land borders. It sat in plain covered in infertile dried clay, except along the rivers. Because of this, Mesopotamia was constantly getting taken over by foreigners and war was common. Egypt was also rich gold and resources, so they did not need to develop trade with the outside world until later; the Mesopotamians had extremely limited resources and had to develop mass trading networks to receive goods Because of the Egyptian’s privileged geographical area. The people embraced and worshipped life and perceived the divinities as their loving guardians. Since the Nile flooded frequently, the Egyptians noticed sequences in their natural world and valued stability. If the Nile River did not flood generally on time, order crumpled and people would question the power of their ruler. Both civilizations were centered on religion. Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia that believed in monotheism and was polytheistic. The civilizations believed their world were ruled by multiply gods. The religious beliefs of the Egyptians were the leading power in the expansion of their culture. The Egyptian faith was based on ancient myths and nature worship. Egypt believed in many gods. The Mesopotamians had disbelief towards life and believed their sole purpose in this world was to serve the vengeful and powerful gods. The major god of the Mesopotamians worshipped was Enlil the sky god. The Mesopotamians worshipped the sky god Enlil because of the unstableness of the region. As stated in The Epic of Gilgamesh, “ Enlil, Wisest of gods, hero Enlil, how could you so senselessly bring down the flood?” The people of Mesopotamia believed that the unpredictable flooding was due to the anger and wrath of Enlil. However when time went on they moved their worship towards the Babylonian God Marduk. But, much like Egypt, the power base on the kings was somewhat dependent upon the floods of the rivers, but mostly on the king’s capability to defend his people and serve the gods. The power of the Pharaoh describes Egyptian civilization. The Pharaoh was described to be a...
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