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A)
Elasticity of demand is describes as the degree of percentage change in demand for a good or service due to variation in price. Elasticity measurements can be expressed by three types of demand; inelastic demand, unit elastic demand, or relatively elastic demand. To determine the percentage of change in demand for a product or service the price elasticity equation and coefficient are used. The coefficient Ed is defined as “the percentage change in quantity demanded of product divided by the percentage change in price of product X” (McConnell, Brue, Flynn, 2012, pg. 76)
The three expressions of Ed are Elastic, Inelastic, and Unit Elasticity. Elastic demand occurs “if a specific percentage change in price results in a larger percentage change in quantity demanded” (McConnell, Brue, Flynn, 2012, pg. 77). For a product with inelastic demand Ed < 1. An example of elastic demand is when there is a 2% decrease in the price of chocolate that results in a 6% increase in quantity. Ed= .06/.02 = 3
Inelastic demand occurs “if a specific percentage change in price produces a smaller percentage change in quantity demanded.”(McConnell, Brue, Flynn, 2012, pg. 77) For products with inelastic demand Ed 0 .Inferior goods are goods that yield a negative income elasticity, Ei < 0. As consumer incomes increase, demand and purchases of these foods decrease. Examples of inferior goods are bus tickets, consignment clothing, and retreaded tires to list a few.
D)
Demand of a product will be elastic when there is a higher number of substitute available. This happens because consumers can easily swap one product for the other based on price. An example can be the purchase of soda. A consumer can go to the store to buy Pepsi but arrive and find a sale on Coke and buy Coke instead. The variety of soda a consumer can chose, makes the demand for Pepsi highly elastic. The same rule applies for

References: McConnell, Campbell R., Stanley L. Brue, and Sean Masaki Flynn. "Elasticity." Economics: principles, problems, and policies. 19th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2012. 76-77. Print.

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