I. Egoism- an ethical theory that treats self-interest as the foundation of mortality. A. Ethical
1. Individual- An individual ethical egoist would hold that all people should do whatever benefits “my” (the individual) self-interest. 2. Personal- A personal ethical egoist would hold that he or she should act of her self-interest, but would make no claims about what anyone else should do. 3. Universal- A universal ethical egoist would argue that everyone should act in ways that are in their self-interest. B. Psychological
1. Explanatory Power- the explanation is argued that although actions might not clearly cause physical or social happiness, or it won’t cause negative feelings, a person’s current thoughts expectation of these outcomes are the main reasons for this explanation of the psychological egoism aspect. It can be used to represent morals and character. 2. Circularity- this explanation of egoism represents a selfish or personal gain/ enjoyment through all aspects of life. Assuming that people only do things in this world for selfish reasons and don’t exactly care about the ending result.
II. Altruism- the belief in our practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well being of others. A. Reciprocal
1. Trivers- believes this behavior can benefit another person or thing that is not closely related while being to the person presenting the acts of reciprocal altruism. This is showing that reciprocal altruism presents the idea that performing an act of kindness to a person not closely related to you is a more effective example in the idea of reciprocal altruism. 2. Alejandra Fernandez-Ortega- beneficial acts to non-relatives that are later repaid by the beneficiary. Mostly common in humans, it’s rare in the animal kingdom. Views this as a human strategy developed in the human mind for social reasons. B. Psychological
1. Martin L. Hoffman- views that a major factor of Altruism is empathy and that people feel they have to step in other people’s lives when they need it. It is shown through evidence that people do these altruistic acts to know that they have helped others, by thinking of what they would want if they were in some else’s position. 2. Tiber Machan- believes that altruism isn’t the same as selfless. It means ‘looking out for others’ and that ‘everyone is selfish or self-interested. There is no escaping that mind-set, the human mind is generated to look out for your self and it is designed to also have feelings such as empathy, sadness, and sympathy. This doesn’t mean a person is selfless by only acting on these emotions for the world. It is a way you choose to live and present your self.
Cherry, Kendra. “Altruism – The Definition of Altruism.” About.com. Web. 2007. Hoffman, Martin. “Altruism.” International Journal of Behavioral Development. Web. March 1978. Machan, Tiber. “Altruism Isn’t Generosity.” The Daily Bell. Web. 2014 Singer, Peter. “Ethics” Britannica School. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2014. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. Trivers, Robert. “Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism” Chicago Journals. Web. 20 Oct. 2012.