5. Ego psychology: problems with the classical theory; the tasks and the origin of the ego, primary and secondary ego autonomy (Hartmann); effectance and competence motivation (White); ego controll and ego resilience
Ego psychology emerged from Freuds classical psychoanalysis. Focus lies on id, ego and superego. Every person interacts with the external world, but also to inner forces. Ego is used to explain how a person adapts with this and his ability to do both. (respond to internal and external forces). Ego psychology from a classical psychoanalysis point of view claims that there is a symbolical and usually sexual meaning behind our actions. This is believed to be uncounscious and we do it to reduce the urges and needs of the Id.
The ego`s tasks:
Originally: mediating among the Id, superego and the reality New idea: adaptation to the world is counscious
The origin of the ego:
Originally: develops from the id and get ist energy from there New idea: exists at birth and has its own energy
According to Heinz Hartmann, the ego has two roles (tasks)
Originally: reducing internal conflict (conflict sphere of personality) New idea: adapting the person to the environment (conflict free sphere of personality)
So, in the conflict sphere the id`s needs are most important to satisfy (inner conflicts), whereas in the conflict free sphere, thinking, planning and adaptation are the most important tasks.
Adaptation occurs on several levels, eg on body level where one coordinate movements and activities. On a psychological level one may gain control over impulses and channel them into appropriate actions. The goal of inhibition is seen as the promotion of the adaptation process and NOT the anxiety reduction.
So, the ego has some forms of autonomy from the Id,
primary ego autonomy: the ego can develop in absence of conflicts. Being effective, planning, thinking and integrating information are pleasureable in themselves. 2.
Processes that were...
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