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Effects on Bilingual Education for public and private schools in the municipality of Siquijor

By Marcelito-Samson Sep 18, 2014 8032 Words
Effects on Bilingual Education of the selected public and private secondary schools in the Municipality of Siquijor.

Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Background
Introduction:
The effectiveness of such program measures through the performance of the learners. The institution continues to find more effective way of teaching day by day. The great impact on how students’ understanding cognitively and heartily absorbed in their minds and hearts depends upon the various approaches being applied. Many styles in teaching are being implemented until such time; the birth of bilingual education emerges and evolves. Nowadays, due to student’s demand second language has to be translated initially in their own dialect for more understanding of the lessons, greater internalization and better absorption of knowledge. The cognitive advantages of bilingualism (eg. With attention, problem solving, etc.) seems to be related to an individual’s proficiency in his languages. This means that a student will benefit more from his bilingualism if he/she is more proficient in both languages. Sometimes bilingualism is a necessity, as a student’s parents may not be fluent in the majority/dominant language spoken in the community. Therefore, the student may learn one language at home and another at school. But sometimes bilingualism is a choice, and parents may wish to expose their child to another language, even if they do not speak a second language themselves. This could be due to the many benefits of being bilingual. Today’s generation embraced the complex challenges to student who work and study hard for progression. Bilingualism is awarely adopted in any sectors like business, academic institutions, religious and political. So as in finding job, employment rates are higher for bilingual students than monolinguals. Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of bilingual education of the selected public and private secondary schools in the Municipality of Siquijor. Specifically, it sought the answer the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents (high school student) as describe in: 1:1. Age

1:2. Gender
1:3. Year Level
1:4. Citizenship
1:5. Language
1:6. Mother’s dialect
1:7. Father’s dialect
2. What are the languages used in teaching?
3. Effects of bilingual education to high school students?
4. How do students respond/react on the bilingual approach of teaching? 5. Is there a significant difference of having bilingual on English alone as the medium of instructions.

Hypothesis of the Study
The Bilingual Education played an important role on the teaching process in the secondary schools. Significance of the Study
This study may set direction for teachers, students, administrative parents and future researchers. Teachers: This will be a challenge to update teachers in all field of subjects for they are the facilitator of learning and teaching and will serve as stepping-stone for a better face of upgrading process. Students: They are the receivers of the new approaches of each teacher. They will be encouraged to go in school and understand enough any presented significant learnings. Administrators: This study may facilitate them in assessing the performance of both teachers and students. It provides a direct assistance in supervising the effectiveness of teaching approaches. Parents: This study will guide the parents in dealing with matured understanding of their growing adolescents. This will help them in encouraging their teens to develop bilingual thinking. Future Researchers: This study will be of significance to the future researchers in their pursuit of better excellence through continuous research.

Scope and Limitation of the Study
The research locale covered the 4th secondary selected private and public schools in the municipality of Siquijor. The public schools involve Cang-alwang High School, Banban High School and Punong High School. The private schools involve Assisi High School, Quezon Memorial Institute High School and Bohol Institute in Technology. I will be getting sixty percent (60%) of the total population of the respondents/students. The schools are randomly conducted within the year 2014-2015 in these six campuses respectively. Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Paradigm

The areas of bilingual proficiency, assessment, culture, planning and delivery of instruction are important components in this study. Meanwhile, school districts are expected to align their programs to meet requirements and secondary schools of education are expected to prepare prospective bilingual education for teachers. A review of the literature provided a theoretical rationale for the identification of each of the behaviors or competencies identified in these three areas:

1.1. Proficiency in two languages

Bilingual special education teachers must enhance linguistically and culturally diverse students by acknowledging their individual language skills (Baca & Cervantes, 1998; Noel, 2000; Ovando & Collier, 1998). The competency of language proficiency has been a crucial issue in the field of bilingual special education. Researchers such as Brantlinger & Guskin (1985) and Sugai (1987) stated that language is an intrinsic component of culture and it is a medium through which other aspects of culture, including the content of formal education are expressed and transmitted. Chomsky (1965) viewed language learning as cognitively based emphasizing the innate contributions and abilities of the learner. 1.2. Assessment

Assessment occupies a prominent place in the diagnosis and evaluation of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Knowledge of assessment procedures is an important competency in the preparation of bilingual education teachers, especially the process of collecting data for the purpose of (a) specifying and verifying instructional problems or strengths, and (b) making decisions about students (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1998). Assessment helps to gather information that describes how an individual is functioning and it also provides information that describes how that individual has functioned in the past (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1998). Researchers in the field of bilingual education have agreed that inappropriate bias assessment affects culturally and linguistically diverse students' academic achievement (Baca & Cervantes, 1998). Another important competency of bilingual education student is the component of culture. Bilingual education student need to be aware that language is a core value for a cultural group, it will also play a crucial role in the development of the cultural identity and self-concept.

1.3. Planning and delivery of instruction

Another critical variables in the education of bilingual education students is academic instruction that has a high standard of excellence. One of the most contested issues in teaching the linguistically and culturally diverse student with special needs is related to the effective methods of instruction. The quality of academic instruction is often lacking in many classrooms (Kozol, 1991). Students learn more when the information is well-structured and when it is sufficiently challenging and well sequenced (Brophy, 1986; Schunck, 1981; Smith & Sanders, 1981). Edmonds (1979), for example, discussed that schools, which are instructionally effective have a climate of expectation in which students are not permitted to fall below a minimum and motivate students through an efficacious level of achievement. Thus, bilingual education teachers working with linguistically and culturally diverse students within the province must remain constantly aware of students' academic instructional needs and characteristics. These teachers need to challenge and motivate these students. The "type" and mode of instructions is an important issue in the bilingual education classroom. For example, in special education, most of the recommended instruction is "direct instruction". Direct instruction is recommended as an effective mode for guiding students in the learning of basic skills. It is also recommended for selecting instructional goals and materials and actively monitor students' progress; and promoting extensive content coverage and high levels of students involvement (Rosenshine, 1976; Brophy, 1979). However a significant number of language minority students work better in small groups and on individual tasks. Thus, bilingual educational programs need to address these issues and provide a variety of instructional modes in the preparation of teachers working with linguistically and culturally diverse students with special needs. All the above issues are important areas in helping students to promote academic achievement.

Definitions of Term

Bilingual Education is an educational theory that states that children can most easily acquire fluency in a second language by first acquiring fluency in their native language. Fluency is defined as linguistic fluency (e.g. speaking) as well as literacy (e.g. reading and writing). curriculum is the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college. synonyms:

syllabus, course of study, program of study, subjects, modules "the curriculum choices for history students are extensive"

proficiency- a high degree of competence or skill; expertise. Synonyms:skill, expertise, experience, accomplishment, competence, mastery,prowess, professionalism, deftness, adroitness, dexterity, finesse, ability,

culture is the arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively. Planning (also called forethought) is the process of thinking about and organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal.

Chapter II: Related Literature and Studies
Related Literature
Professional Development
Faculty Development Program
Teacher Empowerment
Instructional Development
The Four Pillars of Learning
Learning to Know
Learning to Do
Leaning to be
Learning to live together
Studies regarding attitudes towards a certain language are quite numerous. Gardner’s contribution in the understanding of attitudes and its relation to language teaching and learning, however, cannot be ignored. Gardner’s studies in language attitudes and motivation have been cited by professionals and experts in language acquisition (Ellis, 1985; Spolsky, 1989; Romaine, 1995; Cook, 1996; Hashimoto, 2002; and Kamhi-Stein, 2003). Gardner (2001) proposes that the teacher must have the training, personality characteristics, and ability to teach the fundamentals of the language to the students. Not only that, teachers must encourage students to learn the materials and most importantly, use them. Initially, a questionnaire to investigate attitudes had been employed. However, it failed to reveal unconsciously held or socially undesirable attitudes (Hamers & Blanc, 1989). As other researchers became interested in the concept of measuring attitudes, more refined types of measurement emerged. Romaine (1995) cites the advantages of using a questionnaire as facility in the distribution and collection access to a larger number of respondents and ease in comparison and analysis of information/data gathered. Baker (1988) mentions further, several types of techniques in measuring an individual’s attitude, namely: Thurston and Chave, Likert, Guttman’s Scalogram Analysis, the Semantic Differential Technique, the Repertory Grid Technique, Factor Analysis and Sociometry. One of the most popular techniques was Lambert’s matched guise test (Cook, 1996). This technique presents tape recordings to bilingual speakers who are asked to evaluate the speaker based on the scale, which describes certain personality traits (e.g. good/bad, pleasant/unpleasant, etc.) The judge does not know that he is being presented the same speaker who spoke both languages on tape. Since the speaker does not change, it is assumed that the judgment made will solely be based on the personality traits. When used for French/English bilinguals, results of Lambert’s findings showed that both French and English judges perceived English as more favorable than French. Warden and Lin’s (1998) study of Taiwanese students’ attitudes made use of the Likert type scale combined with open-ended questions. The study revealed that the past learning processes affected the perspectives in English learning and the fears of the students. Since the study was conducted among non-EFL majors, the findings show that different language skills, teaching methods, interests and outlook affect the attitudes of the students towards the English language. The study suggested the adoption of a variety of methods that would meet the needs of the teachers and students. Using direct and indirect measures of attitude (subjective vitality questionnaire and a matched-guise instrument), El-Dash and Busnardo (2001) conducted a study on Brazilian attitudes toward English. Results reveal that the majority of adolescents favor English to the Portuguese language in terms of status and solidarity. Favoring the English language over the native Portuguese is attributed to the general perception of English as a prestigious international language and as symbolic use among adolescent peer group. In the field of reading, a study by Kamhi-Stein (2003b) suggests that the reader’s views of their home language and beliefs about reading may play an important role in reading. In her study of college readers in Spanish and English, findings show that attitudes seem to affect the reading behavior of the participants. In a third study conducted by Borromeo-Samonte (1981) on the attitudes of Filipino college students towards English, results show that the students favor English. The students’ attitudes were influenced by their integrative motivation as they can easily identify themselves with the culture. Student performance and attitudes were influenced by motivation. The study also showed that the attitudes were conditioned by the choice of profession/vocation, age, teacher influence and peer group influence. Similar studies in the Philippines made by Amamio (2000) on attitudes of students, teachers and parents toward English and Filipino as media of instruction provided an interesting comparison. Students and teachers prefer the use of English as the medium of instruction with the teachers finding English as a more comfortable language for explaining ideas and concepts. Teachers further noted that English is an intellectualized language and a valuable tool to source information technology. However, the parents preferred Filipino because “it is a language in which they can think and express themselves” and it is a language that they understand and through which they themselves are better understood. In sum, research regarding language attitudes has yielded information that is valuable in determining the language to be used as the medium of instruction. It would benefit the teachers and the policy makers to identify the attitudes of teachers towards the language they use in their fields of specialization.

The Present Study
This research endeavors to address the following questions: 1) What attitudes do student teachers have towards the use of English as medium of instruction in teaching science and mathematics? 2) What implications may be deduced from the respondents’ collective attitudes towards English as the medium of instruction for science and mathematics in the light of the Bilingual Policy of the Philippines? Chapter III: Research Methodology

Research Methodology
Research Locale
Data Gathering Procedure
Validation Questionnaires
Statistical Tools

Method
Respondents
A total of nineteen (19) pre-service teachers from the government and private schools were purposively selected for the study. As observed by Patton (2001), limiting the number of respondents in qualitative studies is not aimed at generalizing but clarifying the idea. The schools were chosen on the basis of graduates’ performance in licensure examinations for teachers. These teacher-training institutions have consistently produced graduates who pass the licensure examinations thereby placing the schools in the top performing institutions. The teacher training supervisor provided respondents from the state university while their supervising teachers favorably endorsed those from the private university. Student teachers were only allowed to undergo the interview during their free time. Respondents came from the state university (32%) and the private university (68%). A majority of the respondents were female (84%). Of the respondents 74% graduated from secondary education in private schools, while 26% finished secondary education in government or public high schools. Fifty-eight percent (58%) took science as their field’s specialization in the tertiary level while the rest specialized in mathematics (42%). Based on the robotfoto (a Dutch term which means a cartographic sketch of the respondents, Kelchtermans & Ballet, 2002) given to the respondents before the actual interview, the majority of respondents used Filipino (74%) as the language spoken at home while English and Filipino (53%) were widely used in school. In terms of language preferences, the majority of respondents seemed to be inclined towards movies (79%), magazines (89%), books (79%) and newspapers (79%) in English. Procedure

Qualitative in nature, the study made use of robotfotos and actual interviews as main tools for gathering information. First, the respondents were asked to answer the robotfoto and were invited for an interview. The interviews lasted for a minimum of twenty to forty-five minutes per respondent. The interview guide questions are presented in Appendix 1. These questions were formulated based on an intensive related literature review. The interviews were semi-structured in nature to allow the researcher to clarify and probe deeper into the answers of the respondents. Respondents could choose Filipino or English as their medium of expression and they were asked to state without inhibition their opinions and comments regarding the questions. Before the actual interviews, respondents were informed that the exchanges were to be tape-recorded. All interviews were done voluntarily and the respondents were assured of the confidentiality of their answers. Data Analysis

Data from the recorded interviews were gathered and transcribed carefully. Answers were categorized into two main classifications: positive and negative attitudes towards the language and the persons using the language. Results were reviewed and analyzed thoroughly by reading the transcriptions. The data were then summarized and interpreted. Findings

Concept of English
Respondents generally thought of English as a universal language that is used in communicating their thoughts and ideas. They also related it to some concepts like grammar, vocabulary and speech. A few considered it difficult as they perceived it to be a challenge and “very hard”. As indicated in Table 1, respondents from the public and private schools did not differ much in their responses as both referred to components of the language Table 1: Perception of the word: English

Respondents from Private Schools
Respondents from Public Schools
“language expressing thoughts…”
“Vocabulary words…”
“Language”
“Language for communication”
“Hard because I’m not good in grammar”
“Universal language”
“Challenging”
“Grammar”
“Very hard”
“Universal language…”
“English is a second language.”
“…anything that’s English”
“speech..”
“…medium of instruction”
“…classic literature, essays, short stories…”
Attitudes towards English as a Language 
The majority of respondents gave English an important status in the country. Some of them valued English highly because it is used for “business, transaction and communication with foreigners”. One respondent seemed to relate the ability to speak the language with the socio-economic status of the speaker. It suggests that if one knows how to speak English, one comes from the upper class in the society. Another respondent suggested that knowing how to speak the language relates to intelligence. Fifteen percent (15%) of the respondents believed that it is the language of the educated. Three respondents believed that English has the same status as that of Filipino though each clarified later on what was meant by equality. One stated that though both languages have the same status, English seems to be the language of the upper class. Another revealed that one should “know first your language before you study another language such as English”. One seemed to be practical in saying that both languages enjoy equal status since there are mathematical and scientific terms that cannot be translated in Filipino, thus, Filipino is seen as a substitute for English. On the other hand, when students have difficulty understanding English explanations and discussions, Filipino comes in handy for translation. The majority of respondents agreed on the necessity and utility of the English language.

Attitudes Towards Users of English

Most of the respondents had positive attitudes towards fellow Filipinos who use the English language in a place beyond the home as indicated in Table 2. Respondents agreed that fluency in the English language signifies success in profession and society. Fifteen percent (15%) or three respondents said that they admire these people. The respondents seemed to admire these users because they see the advantage of the use of the language at home and in school and some compare their communication skills and found themselves inadequate. A great number also attributed the ability of the speakers to use English well to their upbringing at home. The perception was that these people are trained to speak English well at home and in school and so develop fluency in speaking the language. In addition to this, Filipinos who speak English well were taught the language since they were children. The respondents also seemed to relate this ability to speak English well to success in life and having better chances of working in other countries. Initially, some respondents reacted negatively, but after careful probing, they clarified that their answers associated this negativity with their insecurity in speaking the English language. Other respondents thought that non-native speakers who use English at home and in places beyond the school want only to impress other people with their competence in the language. They perceived these users to be “maarte” (exaggerated) and “OA (overacting)”. There was only one respondent who did not have any thoughts at all regarding these English users since his response is “Wala, wala. (None at all)”. Table 2: Attitude towards the user of English at home and in school Positive Attitudes

Negative Attitudes
“Magaling po sila” (They are good.)
“…excel more in outside the country, they have better chance” “Okay, that way they can develop more yung speaking in English.” “They have better edge.”
“Magaling sila….kasi pinalaki silang ganoon.” (They are good because they were brought up that way.) “I admire them because it’s hard for me to speak in English.” “Para bagang well-trained. Lalo po yung pinanggalingan nilang school o yung family.” (They seem to be well trained. Especially from those school or family.) “There’s nothing wrong about it as long as you can manage and you can communicate well with other people.” “Nature noong kinalakihan nila.”

“Advantage. Magagamit po sa bahay at sa school” (It can be useful at home and in school.) “I admire them and I consider them educated.”
“I think they’re trying to impress their, yung mga kausap nila.”  “Okay lang pero parang ‘funny’ at home kasi you’re suppose to speak the Filipino language.” (It’s okay but it seems funny to be speaking the language since you’re supposed to speak Filipino at home.) “I feel insecure kasi parang gusto nilang maging successful.” (I feel insecure because they want to be successful.) “Parang OA. Depende sa place.”

“Maarte if they use it in public places.”
 

Bibliography
Book References
Amamio, L. (2000). Attitudes of students, teachers and parents of RVM schools in metro Manila toward English and Filipino as media of instruction. (Unpublished Thesis) Presented to the UST Graduate School, Manila, Philippines. Arkoudis, S. (2003). Teaching English as a second language in science classes: Incommensurate epistemologies. Language and Education, 17(3), 161-173. Baker, C. (1988). Key issues in bilingualism and bilingual education. England: Multilingual Matters, Ltd. Cruz, I. (2004). English in the Philippines. The Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 2, 2004 from www.inq7.net. Internet

http://www.linguistics-journal.com/component/easytagcloud/90-bilingual%20education

2. Theoretical background

The areas of bilingual proficiency, assessment, culture, planning and delivery of instruction are important components in this study. Meanwhile, school districts are expected to align their programs to meet requirements and secondary schools of education are expected to prepare prospective bilingual education for teachers. A review of the literature provided a theoretical rationale for the identification of each of the behaviors or competencies identified in these five areas:

2.1. Proficiency in two languages

Bilingual special education teachers must enhance linguistically and culturally diverse students by acknowledging their individual language skills (Baca & Cervantes, 1998; Noel, 2000; Ovando & Collier, 1998). The competency of language proficiency has been a crucial issue in the field of bilingual special education. Researchers such as Brantlinger & Guskin (1985) and Sugai (1987) stated that language is an intrinsic component of culture and it is a medium through which other aspects of culture, including the content of formal education are expressed and transmitted. Chomsky (1965) viewed language learning as cognitively based emphasizing the innate contributions and abilities of the learner. 2.2. Assessment

Assessment occupies a prominent place in the diagnosis and evaluation of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Knowledge of assessment procedures is an important competency in the preparation of bilingual education teachers, especially the process of collecting data for the purpose of (a) specifying and verifying instructional problems or strengths, and (b) making decisions about students (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1998). Assessment helps to gather information that describes how an individual is functioning and it also provides information that describes how that individual has functioned in the past (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1998). Researchers in the field of bilingual education have agreed that inappropriate bias assessment affects culturally and linguistically diverse students' academic achievement (Baca & Cervantes, 1998). Another important competency of bilingual education student is the component of culture. Bilingual education student need to be aware that language is a core value for a cultural group, it will also play a crucial role in the development of the cultural identity and self-concept.

2.3. Planning and delivery of instruction

Another critical variables in the education of bilingual education students is academic instruction that has a high standard of excellence. One of the most contested issues in teaching the linguistically and culturally diverse student with special needs is related to the effective methods of instruction. The quality of academic instruction is often lacking in many classrooms (Kozol, 1991). Students learn more when the information is well-structured and when it is sufficiently challenging and well sequenced (Brophy, 1986; Schunck, 1981; Smith & Sanders, 1981). Edmonds (1979), for example, discussed that schools, which are instructionally effective have a climate of expectation in which students are not permitted to fall below a minimum and motivate students through an efficacious level of achievement. Thus, bilingual education teachers working with linguistically and culturally diverse students within the province must remain constantly aware of students' academic instructional needs and characteristics. These teachers need to challenge and motivate these students. The "type" and mode of instructions is an important issue in the bilingual education classroom. For example, in special education, most of the recommended instruction is "direct instruction". Direct instruction is recommended as an effective mode for guiding students in the learning of basic skills. It is also recommended for selecting instructional goals and materials and actively monitor students' progress; and promoting extensive content coverage and high levels of students involvement (Rosenshine, 1976; Brophy, 1979). However a significant number of language minority students work better in small groups and on individual tasks. Thus, bilingual education programs need to address these issues and provide a variety of instructional modes in the preparation of teachers working with linguistically and culturally diverse students with special needs. All the above issues are important areas in helping students to promote academic achievement.

3. Methods

This researcher sought to answer the following two research questions: (a) What are the reactions and attitudes perceived by bilingual education programs as essential in the application of bilingual education in the secondary schools? (b) Are there any significant differences among the students related to required competencies in the area of language proficiency, assessment, cultural, planning and delivery of instruction of bilingual education program?

3.1. Participants

One hundred participants were randomly selected to participate in the study, they included an equal representation (25 in each group) of the following professional groups: bilingual special education teachers, administrators/supervisors, clinicians, and professors. The 25 bilingual special education teachers who answered the questionnaire were teaching bilingual special education classes in New York City. The 25 administrators/principals were working as principals or assistant principals supervising special education program in New York City public schools. The 25 clinicians in this study were New York City public schools evaluators, psychologists, and social workers in charge of assessing the evaluation of bilingual special education students and they were all members of the Committee of Special Education. The 25 professors/researchers were at the time of study teaching courses related or in the area of bilingual special education at colleges and universities. The field specialists were all working with culturally and linguistically diverse students with disabilities. Participants were asked to read a list of competencies and to identify those they thought should be "required" to demonstrate by teachers working in bilingual special education classrooms.

3.2. Instrumentation

The major source of data collection was a questionnaire developed by the author titled The preparation of bilingual special education teachers at the college level. It was developed by combining special education and bilingual education interactive components of the already existing standards from the National Association for Bilingual Education (1992) Professionals Standards for the Preparation of Bilingual/Multicultural Teachers and standards from the Council of Exceptional Children (1993) Council of Exceptional Children Common Core Knowledge and Skills Essential for all Beginning Special Education Teachers. The questionnaire consisted of items divided into five areas: language proficiency, assessment, planning and delivery of instruction, culture, and professionalism. Participants were asked to read a list of 55 competencies and to identify those they thought should be "required" to demonstrate by teachers working with bilingual special education classrooms. The reliability of the questionnaire was obtained by combining responses and calculating the value of Cronbach's Alpha for the entire scale. Frequency distributions and descriptive statistics were obtained for all questionnaire competency scores using SPSS frequency procedures.

4. Results

All field specialists' participants identified the five areas (language proficiency, assessment, planning and delivery of instruction, culture, and professionalism) as important and necessary components in the preparation of bilingual special education teachers. Table 1 summarizes the frequencies and cumulative percentages of perceived required bilingual special education teachers’ competencies by field specialists. Language proficiency was perceived as the most necessary required area for bilingual special education teachers (85%). Among the behaviors/competencies identified by the majority of field specialists, the following five were the most mentioned: (a) proficiency in two languages; (b) knowledge of second language acquisition theory and second language pedagogy that focus on second language teaching and on the integration of language and content; (c) understanding of the nature of bilingualism and the process of becoming bilingual; (d) understanding of structural differences between the child's first language and second language; and (e) exposure to classroom experience in teaching English as a second language.

Table 1
Frequencies and Cumulative Percentages of Perceived Required Bilingual Special Education Teacher Competencies By Field Specialists (N=100)*
Language Proficiency
Assessment
Culture
Planning &
Delivery of
Instruction
Professionalism
No. of Items
8
10
9
21
7
Opt. Participants
Req.
Opt.
Req.

Opt.
Req.
Opt.
Req.
Opt.
Req.
Opt.
Bilingual Special
Education
Teachers (25)
177
23
200
50
148
77
399
126
12
51
Administrators/ Supervisors (25)
181
19
22
23
187
38
452
73
124
51
Clinicians (25)
170
30
205
45
167
58
427
98
110
65
Professors/
Researchers (25)

154
46
185
65
140
85
380
145
114
61
Total
682
118
817
183
642
258
1658
442
472
228
Accumulative Percentages
85%
15%
82%
18%
71%
29%
79%
21%
67%
33%
Req.= Required competencies Opt.= Optional competencies *N=100 field specialists
All four field specialists' groups identified the area of assessment as a very important component in the preparation of bilingual special education teachers (82%). Participants (teachers, administrators/ supervisors, and clinicians) identified them as necessary required competencies. Behaviors identified as of primary importance include the following five: (a) using assessment information in making instructional decisions and planning individual students' programs and suggesting an appropriate environments; (b) promoting and encouraging students' self -assessment of their skills and abilities; (c) using various types of assessment procedures appropriately; (d) familiarity with the appropriate application and interpretation of score, grade score versus standard score, percentile rank, age/grade, and equivalents; and (e) familiarity with typical procedures used for screening. pre-referral, referral, and classification All field specialist groups identified the area of culture as an important component in the preparation of bilingual special education teachers (71%). Those behaviors/competencies identified by the four groups of field specialists were: (a) describing approaches to develop awareness in the learners' value of cultural diversity; (b) providing discussions of the effect of cultural and socioeconomic variables on the students' learning style and on the students' general level of development and socialization; (c) recognizing and accepting different patterns of child development within and between cultures in order to formulate realistic objectives; (d) planning strategies to respond positively to the diversity of behaviors involved in cross-cultural environments; and (e) providing field experiences in order to assist children to interact successfully in cross-cultural settings. Bilingual special education field specialists perceived each of the 21 competencies in the area of "Planning and Delivery of Instruction" as a required component in the preparation of bilingual special education teachers at the college level (79%). These behaviors identified in this area include the following five: (a) knowledge of basic classroom management theories, methods, and techniques for students with exceptional learning needs; (b) teaching students to use thinking, problem solving, and other cognitive strategies to meet their individual needs; (c) developing comprehensive individualized student programs.; (d) utilizing innovative teaching techniques effectively and appropriately in the various content areas and in two languages; and (e) selecting assessment measures and instructional programs and practices that respond to cultural, linguistic, and gender differences. The area of professionalism was perceived as the least important competency (67%). Responses related to specific behaviors varied by individuals and by groups. However, the indicator of "Promoting and maintaining a high level of competence and integrity in the practice of the profession" was perceived as the most essential competency in this area.

5. Discussion

All field specialist groups identified the areas of language proficiency, assessment, culture, planning and delivery of instruction, and professionalism as important components in the preparation of bilingual special education teachers. The results of the investigation suggest that college/university bilingual special education teacher preparation programs need to include in their curriculum, courses, and field experiences in all the above areas. The difference among participants is interesting. For instance, the most interesting finding is that professors/researchers differ from practitioners and yet they play the primary role in preparing new teachers, especially in the areas of second language acquisition. For example, the competencies of proficiency in two languages and understanding bilingualism were perceived to be less required skills by professors/researchers; however, administrators, clinicians, and teachers perceived these two skills as required. Darling-Hammond & Sclan (1996) stated that in an educational system designed to celebrate diversity and include democratic values, both minority and majority children need minority role models. Further, there is an increased demand to prepare qualified bilingual special education teachers. Again, the area of assessment is an important component in special education particularly with the reauthorization of IDEA 97, which requires that states include alternate assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs. Another interesting example is the area of culture in which professors/researchers perceived the competencies related to approaches to develop awareness, accept differences, and discuss cultural variables are important but not as highly important as teachers. In reflecting on the different components and characterization of culture, it should be clear to provide a meaningful and positive attitude and awareness of the thinking, believing, and valuing that our schools encourage in students. Therefore, it is imperative that teachers education programs promote and encourage these types of competencies. The United States student population is growing more ethnically and linguistically diverse. The mismatch between the racial and ethnic profiles of teachers and their students reduces the likelihood that teachers will connect learning to all their students in a meaningful way (Feiman-Nemser & Remillard, 1996). Further, educators who work with culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs can do much to ensure that these challenges are properly addressed in the instruction of these students. Finally, the area of professionalism it is difficult to see how the competency of participating in conference is perceived as not such an important item in teacher preparation, when in fact participating in conferences enhances professionals' knowledge base in the field. Faculty and administrators in bilingual special education college/university preparatory programs need to look at these areas very carefully and incorporate them in their curricula. Teachers, administrators/ supervisors, clinicians, and professors/ researchers must work together with a shared clear mission which is translated into outcomes that are centered around culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs. Colleges/universities must provide courses in the areas of bilingualism, assessment of culturally and linguistically diverse students, planning and delivery of instruction to effectively educate these students and multiculturalism in order to effectively prepare prospective bilingual special education teachers. It is imperative that colleges and universities prepare future generation of teachers that would be knowledgeable in these pedagogical processes. Teachers who are given directions through courses, theory, research, and field experience would develop the skills necessary to educate successful culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs.

6. Implications for practice

One of the main concerns of colleges and universities is the shortage and need of qualified bilingual faculty to address and train prospective teachers. We recommend that the faculty be provided with necessary resources and incentives to become knowledgeable in the field of bilingual special education. It is the responsibility of Schools of Education to prepare all teachers to provide quality education for all students, including culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs. Universities are constantly revising and developing new programs. And, although, programs have been developed or revised many of these programs do not address the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs, especially of those students of urban areas. Colleges and universities' administrators should encourage bilingual special education student teachers to participate and join organization as well as attend conferences. They should allocate monies in their budget for sending representatives of bilingual special education student teachers and bilingual special education professors to attend professional organizations and to present at these conferences. By allowing these professionals to learn new innovative practices and put them into practice, colleges/universities are participants of adequate change and reform in the field of bilingual special education.

References

Andrade, R. G. (1984). Cultural meaning system. In R. A. Shweder & R. A. Levine (Eds.). Culture Theory. (pp. 88-119). Cambrigde, MA: Cambridge University Press. Avis, J. (1994). Teacher professionalism: One more time. Educational Review, 46, (1), 63-72. Baca, L. M. & Cervantes, H. T. (1998). The bilingual special education interface (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merill Publishing Company. Brantlinger, E. & Guskin, S. (1985). Implications of social and cultural differences for special education with specific recommendations. Focus on Exceptional Children, 18, 1-12. Brophy, J. E. (1979). Teachers behaviors and student learning. Educational Leadership, 37 (1), 33-38. Brophy, J. E. (1986). Teacher influences on student achievement. American Psychogist, 41 (10), 1069-1077. Bureau of Education for the Handicapped, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education. (1974). State plan amendment for fiscal year 1974 under part B, Education of Handicapped Act, as amended by section 614 of P.L. 93-380: Basic content areas required by the act and suggested guidelines and principles for inclusion under each area. Washington, DC: State Education Department. Carrasquillo, A. (1990). Bilingual special education: The important connection. In A. Carrasquillo & R. Beacher (ed.). Teaching the bilingual special education students. (pp. 4-24). NY: Ablex. Carrasquillo, A. & Rodriguez, V. (1996). Language minority students in the mainstream classroom. England: Multilingual Matters Ltd. Chomsky, N.(1965). Aspects of theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Council for Exceptional Children (1993). CEC Common Core Knowledge and Skills Essential for all Beginning Special Education Teachers. Reston, VA; Council for Exceptional 7. Likert scales and items[edit]

A Likert scale pertaining to Wikipedia can be calculated using these five Likert items. An important distinction must be made between a Likert scale and a Likert item. The Likert scale is the sum of responses on several Likert items. Because Likert items are often accompanied by a visual analog scale (e.g., a horizontal line, on which a subject indicates his or her response by circling or checking tick-marks), the items are sometimes called scales themselves. This is the source of much confusion; it is better, therefore, to reserve the term Likert scale to apply to the summed scale, and Likert item to refer to an individual item. A Likert item is simply a statement which the respondent is asked to evaluate according to any kind of subjective or objective criteria; generally the level of agreement or disagreement is measured. It is considered symmetric or "balanced" because there are equal numbers of positive and negative positions.[6] Often five ordered response levels are used, although many psychometricians advocate using seven or nine levels; a recent empirical study[7] found that items with five or seven levels may produce slightly higher mean scores relative to the highest possible attainable score, compared to those produced from the use of 10 levels, and this difference was statistically significant. In terms of the other data characteristics, there was very little difference among the scale formats in terms of variation about the mean,skewness or kurtosis. The format of a typical five-level Likert item, for example, could be: 1. Strongly disagree

2. Disagree
3. Neither agree nor disagree
4. Agree
5. Strongly agree
Likert scaling is a bipolar scaling method, measuring either positive or negative response to a statement. Sometimes an even-point scale is used, where the middle option of "Neither agree nor disagree" is not available. This is sometimes called a "forced choice" method, since the neutral option is removed.[8] The neutral option can be seen as an easy option to take when a respondent is unsure, and so whether it is a true neutral option is questionable. A 1987 study found negligible differences between the use of "undecided" and "neutral" as the middle option in a 5-point Likert scale.[9] Likert scales may be subject to distortion from several causes. Respondents may avoid using extreme response categories (central tendency bias); agree with statements as presented (acquiescence bias); or try to portray themselves or their organization in a more favorable light (social desirability bias). Designing a scale with balanced keying (an equal number of positive and negative statements) can obviate the problem of acquiescence bias, since acquiescence on positively keyed items will balance acquiescence on negatively keyed items, but central tendency and social desirability are somewhat more problematic. 8. Scoring and analysis[edit]

After the questionnaire is completed, each item may be analyzed separately or in some cases item responses may be summed to create a score for a group of items. Hence, Likert scales are often called summative scales. Whether individual Likert items can be considered as interval-level data, or whether they should be treated as ordered-categorical data is the subject of considerable disagreement in the literature,[10][11] with strong convictions on what are the most applicable methods. This disagreement can be traced back, in many respects, to the extent to which Likert items are interpreted as being ordinal data. There are two primary considerations in this discussion. First, Likert scales are arbitrary. The value assigned to a Likert item has no objective numerical basis, either in terms ofmeasure theory or scale (from which a distance metric can be determined). The value assigned to each Likert item is simply determined by the researcher designing the survey, who makes the decision based on a desired level of detail. However, by convention Likert items tend to be assigned progressive positive integer values. Likert scales typically range from 2 to 10 – with 5 or 7 being the most common. Further, this progressive structure of the scale is such that each successive Likert item is treated as indicating a ‘better’ response than the preceding value. (This may differ in cases where reverse ordering of the Likert Scale is needed). The second, and possibly more important point, is whether the ‘distance’ between each successive item category is equivalent, which is inferred traditionally. For example, in the above five-point Likert item, the inference is that the ‘distance’ between category 1 and 2 is the same as between category 3 and 4. In terms of good research practice, an equidistant presentation by the researcher is important; otherwise a bias in the analysis may result. For example, a four-point Likert item with categories "Poor", "Average", "Good", and "Very Good" is unlikely to have all equidistant categories since there is only one category that can receive a below average rating. This would arguably bias any result in favor of a positive outcome. On the other hand, even if a researcher presents what he or she believes are equidistant categories, it may not be interpreted as such by the respondent. A good Likert scale, as above, will present a symmetry of categories about a midpoint with clearly defined linguistic qualifiers. In such symmetric scaling, equidistant attributes will typically be more clearly observed or, at least, inferred. It is when a Likert scale is symmetric and equidistant that it will behave more like an interval-level measurement. So while a Likert scale is indeed ordinal, if well presented it may nevertheless approximate an interval-level measurement. This can be beneficial since, if it was treated just as an ordinal scale, then some valuable information could be lost if the ‘distance’ between Likert items were not available for consideration. The important idea here is that the appropriate type of analysis is dependent on how the Likert scale has been presented. Notions of central tendency are often applicable at the item level - that is responses often show a quasi-normal distribution. The validity of such measures depends on the underlying interval nature of the scale. Responses to several Likert questions may be summed providing that all questions use the same Likert scale and that the scale is a defensible approximation to an interval scale, in which case the Central Limit Theorem allows treatment of the data as interval data measuring a latent variable.[citation needed] If the summed responses fulfill these assumptions, parametric statistical tests such as the analysis of variance can be applied. Typical cutoffs for thinking that this approximation will be acceptable is a minimum of 4 and preferably 8 items in the sum.[12][13] To model binary Likert responses directly, they may be represented in a binomial form by summing agree and disagree responses separately. The chi-squared, Cochran Q, orMcNemar test are common statistical procedures used after this transformation. Non-parametric tests such as chi-squared test, Mann–Whitney test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, orKruskal–Wallis test.[14] are often used in the analysis of Likert scale data. Consensus based assessment (CBA) can be used to create an objective standard for Likert scales in domains where no generally accepted or objective standard exists. Consensus based assessment (CBA) can be used to refine or even validate generally accepted standards.[citation needed] 9. Level of measurement[edit]

The five response categories are often believed to represent an Interval level of measurement. But this can only be the case if the intervals between the scale points correspond to empirical observations in a metric sense. Reips and Funke (2008)[15] show that this criterion is much better met by a visual analogue scale. In fact, there may also appear phenomena which even question the ordinal scale level in Likert scales. For example, in a set of items A,B,C rated with a Likert scale circular relations like A>B, B>C and C>A can appear. This violates the axiom of transitivity for the ordinal scale. Research by Labovitz [16] and Traylor [17] provide evidence that, even with rather large distortions of perceived distances between scale points, Likert-type items perform closely to scales that are perceived as equal intervals. So these items and other equal-appearing scales in questionnaires are robust to violations of the equal distance assumption many researchers believe are required for parametric statistical procedures and tests. Munshi has shown that the equal interval assumption may not be valid and that careful construction of the scale paying attention to both the number of choices and their placement on the scale (and therefore their weight) may be necessary if the data are to be treated as interval data.[18] 10. Rasch model[edit]

Likert scale data can, in principle, be used as a basis for obtaining interval level estimates on a continuum by applying the polytomous Rasch model, when data can be obtained that fit this model. In addition, the polytomous Rasch model permits testing of the hypothesis that the statements reflect increasing levels of an attitude or trait, as intended. For example, application of the model often indicates that the neutral category does not represent a level of attitude or trait between the disagree and agree categories. Again, not every set of Likert scaled items can be used for Rasch measurement. The data has to be thoroughly checked to fulfill the strict formal axioms of the model.

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