Substance related disorders
Definitions and terms
This is when a person drinks alcohol or swallows smoke, sniffs or injects a mind altering substance. Abuse
This is when a person is using alcohol or drugs for the purpose of intoxication or in the case of prescription for purpose beyond their intended use. Dependence
It is the continuing use of alcohol or drugs despite adverse consequences to ones physical, social and psychological wellbeing Addiction
This describes that state when the person experiences severe psychological and behavioral dependence on drugs or alcohol Withdrawal effects
These are the adverse physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person ceases using a substance Detoxification
It is the process of safely or effectively withdrawing a person from an addictive substance usually under medical supervision Relapse
This is the reoccurrence of alcohol or drug dependent behavior in an individual who has previously achieved a maintained abstinence for a significant time beyond the period of detoxification Intoxication
It is the psychological and physical effects of the substance which h disappear when a substance is eliminated Tolerance
The state in which repeated administration leads to decreasing the effects
A person is said to have dependence syndrome they experience three of the following characteristics in the past twelve months 1. a strong desire of compulsion to take the drug
2. difficulty in refraining from using the substance, stopping using it or limiting the amount taken 3. a physiological withdrawal state when substance use has stopped or been reduced 4. Evidence of tolerance a state in which an increasing dose of the substance required to produce the effects originally produced by lower dose. 5. Persistence use of the substance despite clear evidence of harm.
This is a situation where mental disorder are in part a by product of long tern substance abuse, for others the mental disorder itself predisposes to alcohol or drug abuse
Categories of substance-related disorders according to DSMIV-TR
A . Substance-use disorder
• Substance abuse
This is a maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by recurrent and significant adverse consequences related to repeated use of substance.
DSM-IV-TR Criteria for substance abuse
A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress as manifested by one or more of the following occurring within a 12 month period; 1. Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligation at work school or home 2. Recurrent substance use in situation which it is physically hazardous e.g. driving. 3. recurrent substance –related legal problems
4. Continued substance use despite having recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused by exacerbated by the effects of the substance.
• Substance dependence
This is physical or psychological dependence. Physical dependence is evidenced by a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of substance despite the problems Psychological dependence is when the individual has overwhelming desire to repeat the use of a particular drug to produce pleasure or avoid discomfort.
DSM-IV-TR Criteria for substance dependence
At least three of the following characteristics must be present for a diagnosis of substance dependence 1. evidence of tolerance
2. evidence of withdrawal symptoms
3. the substance is taken for longer period of time or in large amount than expected 4. There is unsuccessful desire to cut down or control the substance use. 5. a great deal of time is...
References: 1. Fontaine K. L., Fletcher J. S. (1995). Essentials of Mental Health Nursing (3rd Ed.). California: Wesley Nursing.
2. Barlow D. H., Durand V. M. (2002). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach, 3rd Edition, Canada: Wadswoath
3. Gelder M., Mayou. R. (1999). Psychiatry (2nd Ed.). New York: Oxford.
4. Njenga.F. (2003). The British Journal of Psychiatry; Focus on Psychiatry in East Africa. At http://www.bjp.repsyc.org retrieved on 18th February 2009.
5. Henry G. (2007). Psychology. New York: W. W. Norton Publishers.
6. Ndetei D. M (2001). The walk towards the promise: a view of mental health in Global, Kenyan and individual perspectives, University of Nairobi: department of psychiatry.
7. Ndetei D. M. (1980) Psychiatry in Kenya, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 62, 201-211.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document