The Overpopulation in China
John Abbot College
This literature review discusses the impacts of overpopulation on the environment in China through four main studies. Each study directed its research on one consequence: the water issue and the aquatic ecosystem, the overexploitation of land and resources as well as the extinction of green land, climate change, GHG emission and desertification of land1. Several methods and sources were used such as Pressure–State–Response (PSR), urban-rural population model or other research papers written previously2. The results of these studies clearly show that the overpopulation has multiple negative impacts on the Chinese environment and that strategies and policies regarding these issues should be established. The population of China is growing exponentially and it is a serious issue because of its impact on the environment. The water deficiency is growing and as it is presented, the expectations of the Chinese people exceed the capacity of the land3. Since the population of China is increasing fast, the urbanization of land and the agricultural development increase at the same rhythm4. As it is presented, human activity and human density are the main explanation for climate change5. According to Shijie Wang’s study, the southwest of China is experiencing a desertification, in other words the land becomes like a desert left with no resources6. Each article presents a different way of conducting its research to prove its point. In Qian Hong et al. research, the methods used to pursue the study are Pressure–State–Response (PSR), the landscape ecology method and Remote Sensing – Global Positioning System (RS-GPS) 7. According to the authors, there are three types of indicators: Pressure indicators, State indicators and Response indicators7. The indicators either presented a high or a low number. If the number is high, it means that the region suffered from important water degradation; if the number is low, it means the opposite7. The analysis of the research is made through a process called Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) that has four specific indicators7. Jianfa Shen’s study uses urban-rural population model to do predictions about the density of the population and is also represented as spatial demographic-economic model 8, whereas Shijie Wang conducted its research by investigating the studied region and by using indicators such as aerial photos and satellite images. He then compares and analyses the results with previous images and researches from the land 9. The only piece of work that did not use any kind of Research method was written by Hung Ming-Te et al. who preferred to write the paper in reference to researches and studies made and scientific predictions 10. One of the most important consequences of overpopulation is the expanding deficiency in water resources. Investigators processed in six districts of China which are part of one region (Jinan) that was recognized for its important source of water, aquatic ecosystem and surface. Due to industrial development and human actions the water condition became polluted and rarer 11. Researchers found that water deficiency and erosion, rainy climate, poor land vegetation, climate change, loss and decrease of agricultural production, which all lead to desertification of land, are all consequences of the activities of the overpopulation 12. Ming-Te et al.’s study presented that the GHG level increased rapidly and the national security is at risk. GHG growing production would also make the lack of water and air pollution worse than it actually is; also they stated that climate change, in addition to being caused by overpopulation, is influenced by poor sustainable development, poor resources management and over-use of energy. This study shows that such changes have impact such as poor water resource and low agricultural production. These consequences...
Bibliography: Shen, J. “China 's Future Population and Development Challenges”. The Geographical Journal 164 no. 1 (1998): 32-40
Hung, M., et al. “China 's Response to Climate Change: A Policy Analysis.” Journal Of Alternative Perspectives In The Social Sciences 3 no. 2 (2011): 362-375.
Wang, S., et al. “Mechanism of Rocky Desertification in the Karst Mountain Areas of Guizhou Province, Southwest China.” International Review For Environmental Strategies 3 no. 1 (2002): 123-135
Hong, Q., et al. “Regional aquatic ecological security assessment in Jinan, China”. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 13 no. 3 (2010): 319-327
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