The scientific study of media effects has led researchers down the road of video game effects. From both a social and psychological standpoint, video games have the ability to influence their players both on implicit and explicit levels.
The popularity of video and computer games has grown exponentially in recent years, yet empirical research is still relatively limited when compared to the study of other media. In 1982, the U.S. Surgeon General lamented the lack of such evidence (Selnow, 1984). But the progress that has been made has been very beneficial to the field thus far and is only the seed of what has already become one of the most controversial media effects topics to date.
Current research Lee and Peng (2006) state that research on both the psychological and social effects of video games currently focuses on three aspects:
The testing of negative consequences of violent games The utility of educational and training games The general effects of entertainment games
Another study entitled "The Joystick Generation" links the use of video games to the General Affective Aggression Model (GAAM) further explained below.
Koojimans (Rochester Institute of Technology, 2004) looks at video game usage and the development of the children who use them.
A study from Iowa State University titled "The Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Prosocial Behaviors: International Evidence From Correlational, Longitudinal, and Experimental Studies" interestingly looks at the effects of prosocial games and their effects on children, rather than more frequently researched antisocial gaming behavioral effects.
Negative effects of video games, Research on aggressive behavior as an effect of playing violent video games began in the 1980s and 1990s and still continue to this day. Although under current debate, some researchers claim that these violent games may cause more intense feelings of aggression than nonviolent games, and may trigger
References: Anderson, C.A., & Dill, K.E. (2000). "Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772–790. Chambers, J.H., & Ascione, F.R. (1987). "The effects of prosocial and aggressive video games on children 's donating and helping". Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148, 499–505. Dietz, T.L. (1998). "An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior". Sex Roles, 38(5–6), 425–443. Funk, J.B., Buchman, D.D., & Germann, J. (2000). "Preference for violent electronic games, self-concept, and gender differences in young children". American Journal of Orhopsychiatry, 70, 233–241. Jansz, J., & Martis, R. (2003). "The representation of gender and ethnicity in digital interactive games". In M. Copier & J. Raessens (Eds.), Level up: Digital games research conference (pp. 260–269). Utrecht: Utrecht University. Rask, A. (2007). "Video game vixens: Shaping men 's perceptions of beauty?" Paper presented at the International Communication Association Annual Conference, San Francisco. Schie, E.G. v., & Wiegman, O. (1997). "Children and videogames: Leisure activities, aggression, social integration, and school performance". Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1175–1194. Selnow, G.W. (1984). "Playing videogames: The electronic friend". Journal of Communication, 34, 148–156. Walter R. Boot, Arthur F. Kramer, Daniel J. Simons, Monica Fabiani, Gabriele Gratton – Acta Psychologica, 2008, Beckman Institute, Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Wiegman, O., & Schie, E.G.M ^ "Forget Teens: Gamers Are 35, Overweight – And Sad, CDC says". Wired News. 2009-08-24. http://www.wired.com/epicenter/2009/08/gamers-are-sad. ^ Chambers & Ascione, 1987; Wiegman & Schie, 1998 ^ Anderson & Dill, 2000 ^ Funk, Buchman, & Germann, 2000 ^ Dietz, 1998 ^ Jansz & Martis, 2003 ^ Rask, 2007 ^ "South Korean dies after games session". BBC News. 2005-08-10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4137782.stm. ^ Wartella, Ellen, Oliveraz, Andrana and Jemings, "Children and Television Violence in the United States" in McQuail 's Reader in Mass Communication Theory, ed. Denis MMcQuail (London: Sage, (2002) ). p. 398–405 ^ Barker,M ^ a b Flew, Terry and Humphreys, Sal. "Games: Technology, Industry, Culture" in New Media: an introduction (second edition), ed. Terry Flew (South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 2005). pp. 101–114 ^ Barker2001. ^ Freedman, Jonathan. "No Real Evidence for TV Violence Causing Real Violence" First Amendment Centre. 2007, online Available: http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/commentary.aspx?id=18490 [2007, October 17.]. ^ Quirk, Jennifer. "Culture, the Negative Effects of Video Games". Neovox: the Int4ernationalcollege Student Magazine", 2007, online, Available: http:// http://neovox.cortland.edu/archives/2007/06/the_negative_ef.html [2007,September 7.]. ^ Sheff, David. Video Games: A Guide for Savvy Parents. Random House, New York, 1994, p. 33. updated: May 6, 2010 computer image by martini from Fotolia.com