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Effects of Media on Children

By Ajantha1 Apr 16, 2013 1338 Words
OF MEDIA ON CHILD

The Effects of Media Violence
Ajantha

PSY1011 Critical Thinking Assignment 1
Due Date: Apr 8th, 2013
Tutor: Your Tutor’s Name
Lab: Day and time of lab
PART 1: Does exposure to media violence increase an individual's likelihood of engaging in violent behavior? Source 1:

Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal Relations Between Children’s Exposure to TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Their Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood: 1977–1992. Development Psychology, 39, 2, 201-221.

Research strategy: This journal details was found through consulting the reference list of Brad J. Bushman, PhD and L. Rowell Huesmann, PhD book (www.archpediatrics.com {2006}. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine) then searched using Monash library online data base (PsycINFO). Relevence: This journal explains

Source 2:

Hopf W. H., Huber G. L., & Weiß R.H. (2008). Media Violence and Youth Violence: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study. Journal of Media Psychology, 20, 3, 79–96.

Research strategy: Research strategy: This journal details was found through consulting the reference list of Brad J. Bushman, PhD and L. Rowell Huesmann, PhD book (www.archpediatrics.com {2006}. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine) then searched using Monash library online data base (PsycINFO). Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359. Research strategy: Research strategy: This journal details was found through consulting the reference list. Archives of Perspectives on psychology and the media.) then searched using Monash library online data base OvidSp

Part 2
Media violence poses a one of a threat to public health for years. In today’s world, radio, television, movies, videos, video games, and computer networks plays central role in our daily lives. Many research conducted are on the verge of finding whether media violence increase an individual’s likelihood of engaging in violent behavior. One of the earliest and distinguished theories that account for learning aggressive behavior is social learning theory developed by Albert Bandura. (Bandura, 1971) defines as the idea that we learn (eg: aggression) by observing others and imitating them. The models may be fictional or non-fictional. “ Through the observation of mass media models, the viewer comes to learn which behaviors are “appropriate” or will later be rewarded from those that are ”inappropriate” or will later be punished. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that most human behavior is voluntarily directed toward attaining some anticipated reward”.(Donnerstein & Smith, 1997). However, new theories form with the integration of the pioneer social learning theory According to Anderson and Bushman (2002), individuals who expose to media violence via passive modeling have greater risk to engage in aggressive behavior regardless of personality, family environment, genetics, or other biological contributions. Therefore, based on GAM, violent media can results in both short-term and long-term impacts on children aggression by exposing the children to the violent stimuli which causes the formation of aggressive cognition scripts, increase arousal and the creation of an aggressive affective state over time (Bushman & Anderson, 2002).

According to past researches, exposure to media violence has shown negative short-term and long-term effects of on its audiences, especially in children and adolescents (Coyne & Archer, 2005). Short-term effects are related to the increase of the aggressive behaviour in the interaction with others after watching violence on television (Coyne & Archer, 2005). Most of the research designs in examining the short-term effects of media violence are experimental and meta-analysis research design. Meanwhile, long-terms effects are related to the effects of media violence from childhood aggression to adulthood criminality (Bushman & Huesmann, 2006). Most of the researcher employed a longitudinal research design in examining the effects of long-term media violence to aggression (e.g. Huesmann, Moisc-Titus, Podolski & Eron, 2003, Huesmann & Miller, 1994).

In another study of children interviewed each year for 3 years as they moved through middle childhood, Huesmann (2003) found increasing rates of aggression for both boys and girls who watched more television violence, even with controls for initial aggressiveness and many other background factors. Children who identified with the portrayed aggressor and those who perceived the violence as realistic were especially likely to show these observational learning effects. A 15-year follow-up of these children [33] demonstrated that those who habitually watched more TV violence in their middle-childhood years grew up to be more aggressive young adults. For example, among children who were in the upper quartile on violence viewing in middle childhood, 11% of the males had been convicted of a crime (compared with 3% for other males), 42% had “pushed, grabbed, or shoved their spouse” in the past year (compared with 22% of other males), and 69% had “shoved a person” when made angry in the past year (compared with 50% of other males). For females, 39% of the high-violence viewers had “thrown something at their spouse” in the past year (compared with 17% of the other females), and 17% had “punched, beaten, or choked” another adult when angry in the past year (compared with 4% of the other females). These effects were not attributable to any of a large set of child and parent characteristics including demographic factors, intelligence, and parenting practices. Overall for both males and females the effect of middle-childhood violence viewing on young adult aggression was significant even when controlling for their initial aggression. In contrast the effect of middle-childhood aggression on adult violence viewing when controlling for initial violence viewing was non significant, although it was positive. Based on these findings, Huesmann and Eron (1986) concluded that early viewing of violence on television stimulates aggression and that early aggression as a starter to criminal behavior, leading to the longitudinal relation from habitual childhood exposure to television violence to adult crime.

In conclusion, the relationship between violent mass media and effects of their behavior (aggression) shows a positive correlation as in the more they are exposed to violent media the higher their aggression. Although exposure to media violence contributes the behavior of an individual it does not carry as a sole or single factor to violent behavior among children. Therefore other factors such as environment, family, peers, poverty and other relevant factors need to be taken into consideration.

References
Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal Relations Between Children’s Exposure to TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Their Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood: 1977–1992. Development Psychology, 39, 2, 201-221.

Hopf W. H., Huber G. L., & Weiß R.H. (2008). Media Violence and Youth Violence: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study. Journal of Media Psychology, 20, 3, 79–96.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359.

Bushman Bandura (1971). According to Bandura (1971) social learning theory is define as the idea that we learn (eg: aggression) by observing others and imitating them. The observed models may be fictional (television character) or non-fictional. “This theory holds that modes of response are acquired either through direct experience or through indirect observation of models, like those presented in the mass media. Through the observation of mass media models, the viewer comes to learn which behaviors are “appropriate” or will later be rewarded from those that are ”inappropriate” or will later be punished. Implicit in this approach is the assumption that most human behavior is voluntarily directed toward attaining some anticipated reward. (Donnerstein & Smith, 1997). (e.g., Bandura, 1965; Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961, 1963a, 1963b; Berkowitz & Geen, 1967; Liebert & Baron, 1972) involve in a study using children or adults as test subject and exposing them who is either rewarded or punished for their aggressive behavior

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