Function of Interscholastic Sports and Their Effect on
Participant's Academic Achievement.
Function of Interscholastic Sports and Their Effect
On Academic Achievement
While the first account of humans engaged in learning may well be the story of Adam and Eve, the origins of team sports are virtually unknown. Perhaps, team sport pre-dates the origins of the Olympic Games in ancient Greece. The arguments among educators, however, concerning the relevance of team sports to academic achievement may be equally as ancient. In Plato's foundational document of western philosophy, Republic, sport serves the educational objectives of personal virtue and intellectual achievement. The philosopher posits the idea that athletics "cultivates the qualities necessary to endure the long and arduous climb toward knowledge that is philosophy."(Reid, 2007, p. 167) But still today, it is common to hear faculty discussions degrading the value of athletics from the college level down to junior high school. Many believe athletics represent the worst aspects of academia. Yet the tradition of scholastic team sports has survived. This survivorship suggests a symbiosis between athletics and academics very different from the adversarial relation common in faculty discussions. (McCormick & Tinsley, 1987, p. 1103) Indeed, it would be odd within a cultural context characterized by competitiveness, to imagine an educational system which denies the relevance of athletic competition. (Reid, 2007) In the educator's attempt to determine the appropriate relationship between athletics and academics, the key factor appears to be how the individual athlete balances the demands of participating in interscholastic sports with academic responsibilities. (Byrd & Ross, 1991) Further to be determined is the effect of team sport participation on the academic achievement of the
References: Byrd, C.E., & Ross, S. (1991). The influence of participation in junior high athletics on student 's attitudes and grades Harmison, R.J. (2006). Peak performance in sport: Identifying ideal performance states and developing athletes ' psychological skills Harrison, P.A., & Narayan, G. (2003). Differences in behavior, psychological factors, and environmental factors associated with participation in school sports and other activities Horn, T.S. (1985). Coaches feedback and changes in children 's perceptions of their physical competence Goldberg, A.D., & Chandler, T.J. (1992). Academics and athletics in the social world of junior high school Marsh, H.W., & Kleitman, S. (2003). School athletic participation: Mostly gain with little pain McCormick, R.E., & Tinsley, M. (1987). Athletics and academics? Evidence from SAT scores Miller, K.E., Melnick, M. J., Barnes, G.M., Farrell, M.P., & Sabo, D. (2005). Untangling the links among athletic involvement, gender, race, and adolescent academic outcomes North Carolina High School Athletic Association. (2007). Athletic participation numbers. Retrieved November 14, 2007, from http://www.nchsaa.org/pdf/5806A.pdf Overton, G. (1996). A Qualitative analysis of the educational performance of athletes and non-athletes in the high schools of North Carolina Perkos, S., Theodorakis, y., & Chroni, S. (2002). Enhancing performance and skill acquisition in novice basketball players with instructional self-talk Reid, H.L. (2007). Sport and moral education in Plato 's Republic. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 34, 160-175 Slavin, R.E. (2006). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (8th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Smith, R.E., & Smoll, F.L. (1990). Self-esteem and children 's reactions to youth sport coaching behaviors: A Field study of self-enhancement processes Smoll, F.L., Smith, R.E., Barnett, N.P., & Everett, J.J. (1993). Enhancement of children 's self- esteem through social support training for youth sport coaches Sullivan, K.A., Lantz, P.J., & Zirkel, P.A. (2000). Leveling the playing field or leveling the players? Section 504, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and interscholastic sports Whitley, R.L. (1999). Those "dumb jocks are at it again: A comparison of the educational performances of athletes and nonathletes in North Carolina high schools from 1993