EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEES IN SIGINON FREIGHT (A CASE STUDY AT SIGINON GLOBAL LOGISTICS) CHAPTER ONE
Employee motivation is one of the important issues faced by every organization. The main task which every manager has to perform is to motivate his subordinates or to create the ‘will to work’ among them .The efficiency of an employee depends on two factors, first is the level of ability to do a certain work and second is the willingness to do the work. Ability can be acquired by proper education and training, but the willingness to do work can be created by motivation. People may have various needs and desires but only strongly felt needs became motives. Motivation is the act of inspiring someone or oneself to achieve desired course of action. Employee motivation has captured the interest of the researchers, business leaders, and the human resource managers.
Creech (1995), "motivation is that gives force to our behavior by arousing, sustaining, and directing it toward the achievement of goal". Several authors had also studied on the principal concept behind motivation. Kreitner (1995) for instance, has defined motivation as the psychological process that results to a directional and purposeful behavior. Motivation is also defined as the tendency to behave in an appropriate manner to attain certain needs (Buford, Bedeian & Lindner, 1995). The introduction of several researches on employee motivation has also introduced a number of theories explaining the factors that motivate employees. These theories include the need-hierarchy theory and the two factor theory. The need-hierarchy theory of Maslow (1943) is among the first motivation theories that had been introduced. In this theoretical model, Maslow noted five levels of employee needs, which include the physiological, social, ego, safety and self-actualizing needs. From his work, Maslow is a challenging process and that motivation basically works through a series of needs that are arranged in a certain level. Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman (1959) stated that to the degree that motivators are present in a job, motivation will occur. The absence of motivators does not lead to dissatisfaction. Further, they stated that to the degree that hygiene’s are absent from a job, dissatisfaction will occur. When present, hygiene’s prevent dissatisfaction, but do not lead to satisfaction. In our example, the lack of interesting work (motivator) for the centers' employees would not lead to dissatisfaction. Paying centers' employees’ lower wages (hygiene) than what they believe to be fair may lead to job dissatisfaction. Conversely, employees will be motivated when they are doing interesting work and but will not necessarily be motivated by higher pay. According to Armstrong (2001, p. 623), a reward strategy can develop teamwork. Lawler states, “Reward systems can support change and motivate people to accept change and gain the skills that fit the changing nature of the business” (Lawler, 2003). numerous rewards systems operate within organizations, often used as a key management tool that can improve a firm’s effectiveness by influencing individual and group behavior (Lawler and Cohen, 1992). Rewards are effective for encouraging employees to contribute ideas and participate in improvement process. Elton Mayo in Hawthorne studies concluded that productivity increased due to attention that the workers got from the research team and not because of changes to the experimental variable. Hawthorne studies found that employees are not motivated solely by money but motivation is linked to employee behavior and their attitudes. The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, so the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers. Research done by (Higgins, 2004) has come out with ten most motivating factors which are: interesting work, good wages, full appreciation of work done, job security, good working...
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