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THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMMES ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF NIGERIA YOUTHS

(A CASE STUDY OOF CARITAS STUDENTS, ENUGU).

BY

EZIECHI, IFEOMA .S.
MC/2006/136

DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION,
FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, CARITAS UNIVERSITY AMORJI-NIKE ENUGU.

TITLE PAGE

THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMME ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF NIGERIA YOUTHS.

(A CASE STUDY OF CARITAS STUDENTS, ENUGU).

BY

EZICHI, IFEOMA .S.
MC/2006/136.

THE PROJECT RESEARCH IS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.SC) DEGREE IN MASS COMMUNICATION FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL SCIENCE.
CARITAS UNIVERSITY AMORJI-NIKE ENUGU STATE.

AUGUST, 2010.
APPROVAL PAGE
This research project by Eziechi Ifeoma .S. has been read and approved by the Deparment of a mass communication, faculty of management and social science for meeting the requirements. And it serves as a pre-requirement for the award of post degree graduate of Caritas University.

……………………….. ……………………………..
Mrs. Benson Eluwa Mr. Damian .U. Agboeze
Project Supervisor H.O.D Mass Communication

………………………... …………………………….. Date Date

…………………………..
External Examiner

…………………………
Date
DEDICATION
This research work is dedicated to God Almighty who made it possible for me to go the University. And my brother Mr. Eziechi Sunday, Sister Mrs. Chinyere Nkwoka ad others.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I sincerely express my gratitude to God Almighty, Who gave me life, good health, finance and literary ability to carry out this research project.
I wish to convey my deep appreciation to my supervisor Mrs. Benson-Eluwa who despite her tight schedule in the office made out time to read and correct my manuscript. Her contribution will always be an imprint in my mind.
I also wish to express deep appreciation to my lovely brothers and sisters who have always supported me throughout my studies.
Finally, I express my gratitude to my H.O.D Mr. Damina Agboeze and my other Lecturers, in Mass Communication Department for their truthful contributions in making me who I am today.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page - - - - - - - - - i
Title Page - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem - - - - 2
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - 3
1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - - 3
1.5 Research Question - - - - - - - 3
1.6 Research Hypothesis - - - - - - 4
1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study - - - - 4
1.8 Assumption of the Study - - - - - 4
1.9 Limitation of the Study - - - - - 5
1.10 Conceptional and Operational Definition - - - 5
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sources of Literature - - - - - - 6
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature - - - - - 6
2.3 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - 12
2.4 Summary of the Literature - - - - - 14
CHPATER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - 16
3.2 Area of the Study - - - - - - 16
3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 16
3.4 Research Sample and Sampling Technique - - 17
3.5 Instrument used for Data Collection - - - 17
3.6 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - 18
3.7 Method of Collecting Data - - - - - 18
3.8 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 18
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Date Analysis and Presentation - - - - 39
4.2 Hypotheses Testing - - - - -- - - 47
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - 52
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 58
5.2 Recommendation - - - - - - - 59
6.3 Conclusion - - - - - - -- - 61
6.4 Suggestion for further Studies - - - - 63
ABSTRACT
This study probes the impact which Tv has on the cultural values of the Nigeria youths. It specifically tackles the impact of western Tv programes on Nigeria University students. The research posits that the current trends in cultural behaviour of youths in Nigeria as observed among Caritas student Enugu is significantly associated with their perception of western culture and exposure to western Tv programmes. The assumption that foreign media content has direct powerful effects is shared by optimistic modernization theory. Lerner (1962) Rogers (1964) Schramm (1964) and the later critical perspective of cultural and media imperialism. McPhail (1981), (1984) Gerbuer (1977). The research applies the theory of acculturation along with the culturation hypothesis. “Defluer and Dennis 1991, Garbner 1977, Morgan 1991” explains that acculturation of Nigeria youths take place as a result of exposure to western Tv which influence the perception of Tv reality and alters self-image. From the review of related literature, the following hypotheses emerged for testing HI: More exposure to Tv will tend to identification of western television stars as models. H2: The improvement of Local Tv movies industries will increase Nigerian youths’ preference for local Tv product. Research hypotheses 1 and 2 received statistical support from the analysis of collected data using the survey research method Recommendations to check the cultural genocide for further research were preferred.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY This study is on The Influence Of Western Television Programmes On The Cultural Values Of Nigerian Youths using Caritas University Students as a case study. The term culture has been defined differently by different people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people.
According to Ekeh (1989), culture is construct used in an attempt to analyze and integrate events and ideas in broad spectrum of areas of society. Jekayinka (2002), states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Obiora (2002), says the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. He (2002), contends that culture is a continuous process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being change. It is dynamic, learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or means of communication flow from generation to another. The Nigerian culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution on to underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerner (1956).
In his concept of “empathy”, Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathize with the West for modern transformation of their societies to be possible. Schramm (1964), on the other hand, developed an interesting model in which he equates the level of social development of communication to various nations. Access to these modern mass media (Radio, Television, films, telephone, and newspapers) is linked to individual modernity. Nigeria and other third world countries have reacted to these finding by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earnings to import radio and television transmitters and sets. The television programmes especially provides many powerful models for children and abundant opportunities for observational learning.
The television programmes include: 1. Depiction of sex 2. Violence 3. Drug and Alcohol used a. Vulgar Language – behaviours. Etc. that most parents do not want their children to imitate.
Studies have been found by early adolescence that the average Nigerian children have watched thousands of dramatized murders and countless other acts of violence on television (www.encarta.com). For many years, psychologists have debated the question of whether watching violence on Tv have detrimental effects on children. A number of experiments both inside and outside the laboratory have found evidence that viewing Tv violence is relayed to increased aggression in children.
Nigerians as exemplified by trends in Enugu Metropolis where Western exports of television entertainment, information are shown in NTA Enugu, ESBS Television, Minaj Channel, Cartoon Network, ESPN –“Expanded Sports programmes Network” channel provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi – Choice, Music television, Euro – sports, etc. Have raised Nigerians eyebrows to such Western television programmes. Thereby, making them to behave like them, associate with them and even speaks like them. Even our generation that is shown on NTA Enugu and the youth perspective on ESBS are presented by youth and replete with music video of Western origin dominated by rape stars as (Late) Tupac, Beyonce, Ashanti, 50- Cent, Sean Paul, Kelly Rowland, Celine Dion, etc. It is the researcher’s believe that western television especially American television exports have a strategic “weapon” aimed to over power the cultural values of Nigerian youths.

2. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The influence of Western television programmes on the cultural values of Nigerian youths have been said to be a serious problem facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are: 1. Inadequate policy to guard the youths towards Western Tv programmes. 2. There is an erosion of the cultural values. 3. The imitation of Western cultures especially the American cultures. 4. The Nigerian youths are faced with brain wash.
Therefore, if the above problems are not been taking care off, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture.

3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the influence of Western television programmes on the cultural values of the Nigerian youths with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of Nigerian youths are: 1. To show how the contents of Western television programme affects Nigerian University students. 2. To examines its pervasive impact on the cultural values of Nigerian University student. 3. To know how to isolate Western television programmes from Nigeria.

4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1. The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism. 2. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of Western television programmes into Nigeria. 3. It will help remove the idea of imitating Western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria. 4. The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially Tv in the democratic process and development process in general.

5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions are arranged questions meant to be asked by the researcher and receives a feedback (answer) from a respondent. For a researcher to achieve her aim, the following question should be used. 1. Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to Tv than other media? 2. Do they prefer Western Tv programmes to locally produced ones and why if yes? 3. Do Nigerian youths identify more with locally or foreign Tv stars as models? 4. Will improvement of local Tv/movies industries improve Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product?

6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 1. Hi: More exposure to Tv lead to identification of Western
Tv stars as models Ho: More exposure to Tv do not lead to identification of
Western Tv stars as models. 2. Hii: The improvement of local Tv /movies industries will increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.
Ho: The improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will not increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.

7. SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is to find out how the Western Television Programmes affect the Cultural Values of Nigerian Youths using Caritas University as a case study.
The institution is been noted for a constant influence of Western television programs on their cultural values. Hence, the need for choosing the institution as a case study commenced.
In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both staffs and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, Newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.

8. ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
The following were the assumption of this study: 1. A greater number of Nigerian University Students watch Tv. 2. Western Tv programmes have a greater appeal to Nigerian University Students than locally produced programmes. 3. That the programmes contents of Western Tv project symbiotic forms of social reality. 4. The Western Tv is having a greater acculturation on Nigerian University Students in particular and on Nigerian youths in general. 5. That the improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will change Nigerian youths attitudes towards Western Tv programmes.

9. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Though this research work is on the influence of Western television programmes on the cultural valves of Nigerian youths. It is limited to Caritas University Students Amorji-nike, Enugu, using five departments that were randomly selected from faculties and hundred and fifty questionnaires that were distributed to them. This is because of time and resource, had it been that time and resource were available similar studies would have been done in other private University/ schools in the country so as to ensure a more embracing result.

10. CONCEPTIONAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS. 1. Youth:
Conceptual: It means young men and women.
Operational: It is defined as students in various Universities in Nigeria and who fall between the ages of 15 -30 2. Media:
Conceptual: The means of giving news and opinions to large number of people.
Operational: The media is operationalised as Tv. Broadcast used to generate or circulate information to the public. 3. Cultural identify:
Conceptual: it is the self definition, self perception and self- image of a person as a member of a group exhibiting uniform culture that are consistent with the values of that group.
Operational: It is those commonly shares socio-political interpretation and meanings related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviours within Nigeria. 4. Cultural dominance:
Conceptual: This refers to nations of neocolonialism that uses policy and practice that have effect to dominate the culture and affairs of less developed countries.
Operational: it means the conscious and unconscious domination by Western Tv media on the media system of Nigeria.
REFERENCE
Lasswell, H. (1927). Propaganda Technique in the World Way. New York: International Arts and Sciences Press.

Lenin, V.I. (1971). Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism. New York: International Art and Sciences Press.

Lerner, D. (1962). International Cooperation in National Development. Honolulu: Hawaii East West Centre Press.

Nnolum, E.A. (2004), The Influence of Western Television Programmes on. the Cultural Values of Nigerian Youth. Unpublished text.

Ologbese, E. (2009). Mass Communication and American Empire. New York: A. M Kelly Press.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

1. SOURCES OF LITERATURE
The actual literature reviewed for this study are books, news paper, journals of communication, professional publications both published and unpublished works, seminar works, projects, etc and from centre for communication research Enugu, Enugu State library, Enugu State University of Sciences and Technology library and number of newspapers house offices in Enugu.
2.2 REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE
In recent times, the issue of globalization as evident in global mass communication has enhanced information around the world. Yet, it has also brought about increased inequality, individual alienation, cultural and social tumult. The phenomenon is also seen to be leading to the replacement of traditional structures such as the family, religion and the community with ones supposedly more relevant to the modern world. (McQuail 2000: 222). Mow Lana (1996: 108) remarks: there seems to be almost blind faith in the new modern and technological solutions to problems and a subsequent devaluing of traditional values and structures. No matter how valuable they have proved to be over centuries, people are surprisingly quick to project their indigenous traditions and cultural values as reactionary, static, irrelevant to their lives.
However, some argues that there is meditating factors which limits the influence of countries. Such factors are selecting, personality, society.

2.2.1 THE MEDIA EFFECT PERIOD
In developing the media effect over time, brings to light the following periods of the effect of the media. (Edeani 1998) 1915 – 1942 period of very powerful effects. 1942 – 1960 period of limited effects. 1961 – 1974 period of moderate effect. 1974 – Represents period of powerful effect.
These periods is pioneered by the findings of Elizabeth Noelle Neumann using longitudinal studies approach.
The powerful effects of the media enjoyed acceptance among the generality of communication scholars. Schwartz (1988), literally portray the power of the media especially the Tv when he writes “Good like the media can change the cause of war, brings down kings, elevate the lowly and humiliates the proud by directing the attention of millions on the same event and in the same manner.
This idea relates to the subject of this study; in that the Tv and in the case of Western Tv, they continuously bring the cultural values of the Western into focus in Nigeria. Thereby, occupying the minds of the Nigerian Youths with the alien values. Schwartz’s viewpoint is consistent with the view expressed by Golting (1977) in Okunna in 1994.
“The media are central in provision of ideas and images which the people use in interpreting and understanding a great deal of their everyday experience”. More specific work relating to Tv is seen in Walter Lippman’s theory of pictures. He says that what we watch on Tv and other media form images in our heads. They shape our attitudes, perception and behaviors.
Herbert Blummer in Black-Bryant of (1992), provides a general picture of how viewing films on Tv influences children’s play, their everyday behaviour, dressing, mannerism, speech, emotions, ideas about romance, ambitions and carrier plans. He shows how children imitates cowboys, cops and robbery, pirates, soldiers, every conceivable hero and villain they have seen in films.

2.2.2 THE WORK OF THE MEDIA ON YOUTHS Skinner (1984), from a case study of Trinidad and Tobago found that Tv viewing was positively related with foreign values. In an attempted synthesis of the cultivation hypothesis, hawking and Ponker (1982), concluded after viewing 48 audiences that Tv does influence the viewer’s perception of social reality.
Ideologically, Goldman and Rajagopal (1991) using Gramscia (1971) concept of hegernony describe Tv news and programmes as a fabrication of form and content with prevailing modes of interpretation. These researchers see Western Tv programmes as commodity based on formulas used to guarantee balance and neutrality while contributing their own conceptual frame of references that are forced upon the viewers.
In an analyst of the role of the U.S Tv in Iceland (Payne and Peak1977) using the theoretical framework “Cultural diffusion”, found support for the media acculturation hypothesis. Western Mass Media, in particular Tv, Influence the way people think, act and feel. Kim (1988), posits that there exists communication influence at two levels in every cross cultural context. Firstly is at the personal communication or interpersonal level. Secondly at the social communication level. The interpersonal communication level deals with the cognitive structure of the individual and it comprises knowledge of the patterns, rules and symbols used by the host of communication. All the levels of interpersonal influence of socialization or acculturation take place. The social communication is underlying inter-subsidization a phenomenon which occurs as a consequence of public symbolism, symbol utilization and diffusion (Ruben 1975). It further defined as the process by which individuals regulates the feelings thoughts and actions of one another. (Kim 1988). The literature supports the problem taken in this study that significantly posits relationship which exists between high exposure to Western Tv and Cultural values of Nigerian Youths. These programmes include the News, Music, Videos, Talk shows, commercials and other forms of general Tv programmes.
The images and metaphors surrounding the production of these programmes have the effect of presenting the Western culture as superior to the Nigerian culture. In addition, Nigeria viewers have their weakness by viewing the quality programmes of the West which overtly or covertly express Western superiority. (Chesebrow 1989). The different programmes genres of Western Tv have bad characteristics which affects the viewers. The news media, reports the third world with so much distortions that the citizen of the third world countries as Nigerian youths will see themselves, countries and international countries as international failures. (Tuchman 1976).
The music and video shows are sexy and violent. Sex on music and videos especially American stars which is popular among Nigerian Youths seems more demonstrating, Kissing, hugging and suggestive behaviour which occurred twice the rate that occurred on conventional Tv (Shermah 1986) The Television broadcasting combine sound with imagery, symbolism, sign system and shared meaning thus programmes are seen as a symbolic representation of mass culture, employing social rhythms, clothing styles, eating habits and patterns, knowledge and speech styles and even symbolic relationship. The Tv has the power though it contents enhance, reinforce or supplant the visible manifestation of culture. Again Tv is seen from the Marxist point of view as cultural capital used by the capitalist elites of the society to further their own interest. (Schiller 1969) The Tv culture is produced and made stronger than an inherited indigenous cultural identity. Because of its passive nature and condensed acceptance by the audience if the programme is far. However, regardless of the social structure, Tv technologies encourages new values believes and norms (Teffres 1986).

2.2.3 THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF TV VIEWING ON NIGERIAN YOUTHS
Studies using different perspectives have argued that tv exerts a significant alienating impact or influence on the indigenous culture and self perception of an individual. The accumulative effect of which is the depreciating of the Nigerian self image or cultural identity and an identification with the constructed self. A process referred to by social and clinical psychologist as self hatred. (Hatchen 1987). Tan et al (1987), in their study of the impact of American Tv in the Philippines shows that frequent showing of foreign culture on Philippines has lead to the depreciating of the Philippines self-image and corresponding appreciation and the desire to behave like them when projected by the Americans and Western Europeans.
Many criticisms have also been leveled against the films shown in African Tv today. The Senegalese film maker Ousmene (1977) has observed that movies in Africa are playing a negative role. The majorities of the movies shown on African Tv are products of cultural alienation. He also noted that many Nigerians have complained of the poison content of films shown on the screens in Nigeria.
The effect of Tv on Nigerian youths can not be over emphasized. Lovas (1973) in his study on the effect of Tv, concluded that watching aggressive programmes serve to arouse children’s aggressive impulse to some degree. Bandura and Rose (1973), in their own study found that people who watch aggressive programmes are likely to be more aggressive. Skornia (1985), reports that in March 1964, Michael lee Camrilb a nineteen year-old America marine on leave, says that after watching a horror movie on Tv, something came over him which caused him to kill his father, mother and sister with a matchet.
McBride (1981: 163): consequently, the Nigeria media audience especially the youth is caught in a mesh of confusion of values. This is exemplified in their mode of dressing, speech mannerison, socio-cultural Life. It has also wrought no little damage to how our youths perceive our culture and environment. Increase number in violent acts, HIV infection, immoral acts and such other vices by the youths has been traced to exposure to pornography in the foreign media.

Through films, powerful advertisement, fashion and Musical shows the Western has tried to sell to the developing world the notion that their goods, cultures of being depended on.
The Western media content offerings made auditable through the New Communication Technologies (NCT) also carries cultural values which also tend to conflict or harm the local cultures, belied and norms. The negative aspect of the accessibility the NCT is that, it has stunted the growth and development of the Nigeria media. What is obtainable in Nigeria media landscape is the dependency syndrome where they rely heavily on the offerings made available by the foreign media in augmenting their local sources in news content, entertainment, music and programming. The distressing fact is that they become models that display the various wares of their owners without any opportunity to refuse or choose Mattelart (1999).

2.2.4 THE DESTRUCTION OF NIGERIAN CULTURE
It is my view that most Western American Tv programmes in Nigeria have violent contents and contributes to the rise in violence on the Universities youths. Vincent Maduka (1984) agrees that Nigerian cultural values are being just eroded by foreign ones. He regrets the fact that there seem not to be any sign of resistance by Nigeria against these foreign invades that make matters worse. He further points out that Nigerians especially youths, adopt Western values in their ways of eating, dressing, speaking, education and even courting and sex life. There could be no better way to analyze the situation on our university campuses than the one given by maduka (1984). Nigerian Universities have become so materialistic and pleasure Loving that they would buy hamburger, ice – cream, refrigerator, Tv sets, compact disk- sets, foreign dresses etc. rather than buying books and going to libraries to read. They would go to night parties and picnics instead of attending lectures and classes. The list is endless but more disturbing is the fact that the students often go to the extent of using their school fees to satisfy these desires. The students are so carried away with the Tv projection of reality that they adopt hair and dressing styles that are nothing but outrageous. While most females’ students dress almost naked to school, male students increasingly wear spot ear-rings. They also learn, know and speak American slang’s more than English Language. These behaviours are in line with the behaviours of characters shown in most Western Tv contents. This content of western culture is deemed to be violent and competitive. Harvard law professor (Duncan Kennedy 1993), says the culture of the “wild west” is individualistic, materialistic and philistine. Imitation of Tv realities of Western nation by people of the third world nations as Nigeria was acknowledged and attributed to some major reasons by McBride Et al (1980).
Some of the reasons include: 1. The continuing and increasing dependency of developing countries on rich industrialized nations for nearly all their communication equipment, technology skills and soft wares. 2. The over whelming in flow of news, Tv programmes, films, books and other cultural materials between developed and undeveloped ones with alien models and values. The consequence this trend has for Nigeria and other third world countries over which the Tv hegemony of he west dangles can be measured in terms of the number of people from Nigeria and other third world countries who perpetually seeks to emigrate every to the united countries (American), (Western Europe) inorder to experience and realize their impression of western cultures formulated through the Tv and construct perception of social reality. That is to give meaning to their projected self- image. This stunts real development.

2.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A number of theories come into play in explaining the communication situation being questioned by this study. However, the theory of acculturation in association with the cultivation hypothesis gives this study the bases for its existence especially with Tv social effects. Acculturation involves those changes individuals are willing to make in their effective cognitive identities and interactive behaviours over time as they deal with life. It occurs through the identification, internalization and subsequent expression of the significant symbols of the “host” or “dominant” culture of society. As early Walter Lippman (1921), suggested that the pictures in our heads are mainly constructed from the mass media. It was Lippman’s (1922) work that was refined to what is now known as “cultivation” or “encultivation” hypothesis. This hypothesis is derived from the cultural indicators project of Gerbner (1977) and his colleagues which since 1967 has conducted annual content analysis of U.S network dramatic Tv programmes (message system analysis) and investigated the contribution of those messages for viewers conception of social reality (cultivation analysis). The basic hypothesis guiding cultivation is that the more time one spends watching Tv, the more likely one is to hold conceptions of reality that are congruent with televisions most stable and recurrent portrayals of life and society. This is called cultivation because; it is argued that Tv messages achieve these effects by virtue of their cumulative, systematic repetition over time. An important corollary of cultivation theory is the notion of “main streaming” which means that television cultivates homogeneity among their divergent groups. This analysis raised questions that are ideally suited to cross cultural comparative research (Morgan 1970) especially in countries with similar media structures but different cultures than exist in U.S.A. Nigeria is such a case. Therefore the major theoretical prospective applied in this work is the acculturation perspective under which the approaches of cultivation and mainstreaming are subsumed. The theory of acculturation deals mainly with physical movement or removal of an individual from ones cultural setting into another setting into another setting with foreign cultures (Obert 1960; Taff 1977; Bennett 1977). However, the concern in this study is not to assess acculturation and interpersonal communication context, but in a mediated communication context wit the mass media and in particular Tv. The Tv is being considered as major agent in the acculturation process which takes place regardless of national borders or geographical boundaries (Nwankwo and Onwumechi 1999). The research problems of cross cultural effects of across national borders has received special attention in the literature of Bairnet and Mcphail 1980, Payne 1977. The television acculturation studies generally support the view that Tv does exercise significant influence on domestic, national and international audience. The acculturation effect on attitudes of individual has been discussed in terms of co-native or behavioural effects. (Rohof and Miller 1980) shows a resultant change in attitude as a result of Tv viewing. Also, “Payne and Carlson 1982”, found exposure to American Tv to be related to more favorable attitudes towards U.S cultural products.

In the cultivation hypothesis, Gerbner (1977) hypothesized that Tv cultivates perceptions of reality on the basis of which people interpret and understand. Society people are therefore influenced into corresponding or acceptable behaviors towards the rest of the society (Gerbner et al 1980; Bryant et al 1981). Tv cultivates and mainstream viewers. Where mainstreaming is the process by which Tv brings various group into the mainstream of values of a dominant culture. Gerbner (1980) also argues that heavy Tv viewing within various sub-groups develop common outlook which are different from the outlook of lighter viewing. The cultivation hypothesis further posits that contents exert a continuous force on viewers’ mind influencing the way they see the world. The cultural hegemony perspective is also useful. Antonia Gramsci (1971) explains that two conditions are necessary for the ideological process of cultural hegemony to take place in content and in coercion. The Dominants of political, social and economic interests utilize Tv as their instrument of domination and seek to secure the consent of the audiences through the legitimate means of Tv programmes. Hall (1977) and Gittin (1980), emphasized the dialectical native of hegemony showing how Tv programs represents a method adopted by the dominant classes in society of “making sense of the world around us” and of which method McQuail (1981) call it Tv reality. Western countries Tv news and programming provide the social text and context for images of cultures, political and economic hegemony. These Tv programmes have been internalized for cultural and material success in Europe and America. The acceptance of general Western Tv programmes therefore, represents a consensual acceptance of these alternating images (cultural dependency). Cultural dependency is expressed in terms of the cultural values of the audience. The literature speaks eloquently to this issue (The Influence Of Western Television Programmes On The Cultural Values Of Nigerian Youths). Collier and Thomas 1988 have established that cultural values is one of the many identities forms and manages different people of different cultures communicates.

Also, the soap operas in terms of image that tend to encourage cultural, political and economic hegemony (Atheide 1985, Beltran 1978), are generally low in art, high in sex and sell (McKemah 1983).

Therefore, it is my view that cultural hegemony is a tool for cultural accumulation of the Western cultures by the Nigerian youths.
SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE From the reviewed literature, it could be deduced that the extent to which Nigerian youths adopt symbolic behaviours, attitudes, belief and patterns that are perceived to be consistent with Western culture is the extent to which Western culture are exported to and adopted by Nigerian cultures. A study by Aliu, cited in Igbinedion (1982)found that Nigerian university students will tend to prefer foreign culture not just for pleasure, but that the culture plays an important role in influencing the youths in the way they behave, their dressing style, speaking and thinking etc. This study led him to conclude that Nigerian university students have become a set of youths who think more of the transient and canal ideas of the foreign cultures than their own culture. This has created perpetual Western culture in Nigeria as manifested by Nigerian university students.

REFERENCE

Atisdiull, H.S. (1984). The Role of the News Media in Human Affairs. New York: London Longman Press.

Duncan, K. (1993). Sexy Dressing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Edeani, D.O. (1988). Public Opinion and Media. Unpublished Lecture notes. Political and Economic Implications of U.S. Coverage of Africa: The Harvard Journals of Communication.

Gerbner, G. (1977). Mass Media Policies in Changing Cultures. New York: John Willey.

Mc.Bride, S. et al. (1980). Many voices one world. Paris: Unesco press.

McQUAIL, O. (1981). Mass Communication Theory an Introduction. Bevery Hills: California sage Publisher.

Schiller, H. (1969). Mass communication and American Empire. New York: A.M killy Press.

Skinner, E.C. (1984). Foreign Television Programmes Viewing and Dependency. Unpublished Lecturer.

Skornia, H.J. (1965). Television and Society an Inquest and Agender for Improving View. New York: McCraw Hill Book Company.

Tuchman, G. (1978). Making News a Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: N.V. Longman. CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY This study is designed to find out the Influence Of Western Television Programmes On The Cultural Values Of Nigerian Youths. This goal cannot be achieved unless the research work is orderly, imaginative, logical and accurate. Hence, this chapter is associated with the research method used in carrying out the work. The pertinent pointed here is that, it helps to know which method is appropriate for the project.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN It is an acceptable fact that research design is the basic plan that guide data collection and the analysis phase of any research work. The design of a research can be regarded as the frame-work which specifies the type of information to be gathered including the source of data and the procedure used in collecting them. Therefore, on the basis of this study, the research design used for collecting the required information is the survey analysis on the basis of self administrated questionnaire, interview and personal observation. The analysis of the data collected is based on descriptive and inferential statistical tools of measuring data. The primary and secondary data are source of information on the Influence of Western Television Programmes on the Cultural Value of Nigerian youths.

3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY The geographical location of this research work is within the institution of Caritas University, Amorji-Nike, Enugu. The institution comprises of about four thousand five hundred students. But based on this study, one hundred and fifty students were selected for this study using the simple and systematic random sampling method. The research is to examine how the Western television programmes affects the cultural values of Nigerian youths and how such influence can be prevented.

3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY The population of the study can be said to be animate or inanimate things which a study is focused. It could be class, school, libraries, towns, local government area, states, nations or persons the research is interested in getting information for the study (Nnayelugo: 2001). In this research study, the population used comprises of staffs and students that were selected randomly from five different departments of Caritas University, Amorji-Nike, Enugu. But the actual number of staff and students of the institution is four thousand, five hundred (4,500). n = population. N = Total population of the scope i− normal e = expected error image (0.05)2 n = (N) 4,500 (1+N) 1+ 4,500 (0.05)2

n = 4500 1 + 4500 × 0.0025

n= 4500 112525

n= 399.91 i.e. n= 400
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE Research sample can be defined as the part or section of a population. (F.O. Obodoeze: 1996). (Ezeja E. Ogiliph D: 2005), it is the actual number or part of a study population that is objectively selected for such study. The sample sizes of 400 were drawn from the population using simple and systematic sampling method. This technique affords every individual in the large population equal opportunity or chance to be selected. Based on the technique, 400 persons were selected from each of the five different departments. The sample population now represents the researchers’ respondents.

5. INSTRUMENT USED FOR DATA COLLECTION The questionnaire, interview and personal observations were used for the collection of the data. The instruments used for the collection of data are meant for Caritas University students which were used as a case study of the researcher work. The questionnaire is rightly used to measure the independent and dependent variables identified in the research question and hypothesis. The questionnaire were read and approved by my supervisor and it contains about eighteen questions.

6. VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT The concurrent validity method were used to ensure that the instruments measured what they are expected to measure. The instruments used are valid because it enables the researcher to obtain quick and accurate information or data. The instruments made straight effort to reach the selected group and the sample member were able to give the required information needed for concrete conclusion of the research work.

7. METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA The data of this research work is collected through the administration of questionnaire, interview and personal observation on respondents in Caritas University. The instruments were used to elicit demographic data and data for specific questions for the study. To ensure accurate data collection, the questionnaires were distribution directly by the researcher to the respondents of Caritas University. The interview and personal observation were also conducted by the researcher. The staff of the institutions’ attitudes towards the questions been asked were encouraging. They were willing to give the required information needed. The above instruments used have helped in collecting an aggregate amount of the data used for the study.

3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS For proper analysis of the two hypotheses in this study, descriptive and inferential statistical tools of measuring data were used in analyzing the collected data. The use of these forms of statistical method to test the validity and reliability of data cannot be done without appropriate coding. Therefore, using coding scheme for responses to questions on the questionnaire, the responses were assembled in what is known as the coding sheet. Frequency and percentages were used to describe data to see the general characteristics of the sample studied and to answer research questions.

The derivation of chi-square formula. Chi-square (x2) distribution model is the sum of square of a normal standard distribution variables where the variance of the normal distributed values of the observed value that are associated with the variable. That is, z = N (0, 1) where z = (x - u) Therefore X2 = ∑ [(O-E) 2] E Where O = observed values E = Expected valves REFERENCE

Curran, J., & Gurevitch, M. (1991), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Alriold Press.

Ezeja, E., & Ogili, D. (2005). Project Writing. Enugu; Providence Press (Nig) Ltd.

Fanan, F. (1976). The Coretched of the Earth. New York: Groove Press.

Global Communication Bi- Annual Journals (2004) Department of Mass Communications Federal Polytechnic Oko Nigeria: Published by Africa Link Books.

Nnolum, E. A. (2004). The Influences of Western Television programmes on the Cultural Values of the Nigerian Youths. Unpublished text.

Offing D. A. (1980). Imperialism and Dependency. Nigeria Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publisher.

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

The response rate of this study is 120 and the administered questionnaires needed were properly answered. The results of this study are presented in tables and percentages which will correctly provide clarity in understanding. Chi – square is the important statistical equipment used in testing the significance of the result using 98% level of confidence with 0.05% of error probability level.

For this study, 400 questionnaires would have been distributed to respondents; but based on time and money limit, I distributed 200 questionnaires to respondents. I50 were returned 30 were discarded for several reasons including incomplete data or unnecessary information. This distribution however, was spread over the four faculties in Caritas University, Enugu.

In the total responses of 120, 62 respondents representing 51.7% of sample were males and 58 respondents representing 48.3% were females. Total of 13 respondents or 10.8% were within the minor group while 107 or 89.2% respondents were adults. Holders, 31 or 25.8% were OND/ NCE and 31 or 25.8% were B.Sc. and higher degree holders.

In answer to some research questions set earlier in this study, the researcher found out that most students depend on television for information and entertainment more than other media. This shown in the table below:

Table 1: Preference for media. Q1: Which of the following media do you mostly depend for Information and entertainment?

|Media |Frequency |Percentage |
|Radio |16 |13.3 |
|Television |75 |62.5 |
|Magazines |11 |9.2 |
|Newspapers |18 |15 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of study 2010 From the above table, 75 respondents reported that they depend on television for information and entertainment than other media while 45 depend on other media for information and entertainment. Table ii: Preference for Tv programme. Q2: Which of the countries produced Tv programmes do you prefer?

|Country |Frequency |Percentage |
|Western |65 |54.2 |
|Nigeria/ African |36 |30 |
|None of the above |19 |15.8 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of Study 2010 The above table has shown that Nigerian youths as represented by Caritas University students prefer to expose themselves to Western television programmes than to local ones. Respondents gave several reasons for their preference for programmes. For these who prefer television programmes of the Western origin; 21 or 17.5% says because they are more entertaining. 12 or 10% reported that they are higher quality production. 9 or 7.5% say that they teach conventional ways of behaviour. 3 or 2.5% say they are more realistic and 20 or 16.7% responded that they are more educative.

For respondents who prefer local television programmes 14 or 11.7% say they do because they are Nigeria. 13 or 10.8% of the respondents reflected indigenous culture. 8 or 6.7% reported that they have more relevance to the environment. For those who have no preference, 20 or 16.7 say that their preference varies with programmes.

Table iii: Level of television viewing. Q3: How often do you watch Television?
|Degree |Frequency |Percentage |
|Very often |46 |38.3 |
|Often |33 |27.5 |
|Seldom |15 |12.5 |
|Rarely |15 |12.5 |
|No option |11 |9.3 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of study 2010 The first two columns were classified as high television viewers. While the remaining columns were classified as low television watchers.65.8% of respondents are high television watchers while 34.3 are low television watchers. Caritas Students therefore, watch television more often than other media. Table iv: Influence of Tv on the dressing. Q4: Do what you see on Western Tv influence your dressing mode?

|Respon |Frequency |Percentage |
|se | | |
|Yes |69 |57.5 |
|No |35 |29.2 |
|No comment |16 |13.3 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of Study 2010 The above table shows that the Western television programmes affects the Nigerian university students’ dressing. From the responses, 69 or 57.5% of respondents said yes, it influence the way we dress, while 35 or 29.2% said no, it does not influence the way we dress and 16 or 13.3% made no comment. Table v: Approval of girls initiating love relationship with men.

Q5: Will you approve of girls initiating love relationship with men?
|Response |Frequency |Percentage |
|Yes |72 |60% |
|No |48 |40% |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of Study 2010 From the above table, it is observed that 60% approve for female students initiating love relationship with men they like, while 40% reported that it is not good for female students to initiate love relationship with men they like.

Table vi: Identification with television stars. Q6: Do Nigeria Youths identify more with western or local Tv Stars as models?
|Origin of stars |Frequency |Percentage |
|Western |69 |57.5 |
|African/ Nigerian |28 |23.3 |
|Others |23 |19.2 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: field of Study 2010 The Western Stars are those from Western Europe mainly British and USA. Nigerian/ African stars are those from Nigeria and other parts of Africa. Others are mainly stars in Latin America, Chinese and India. The table above shows that Caritas students identify more with Western television stars.

Table vii: Cross tabulation of television stars identification with imitation.

Q7: Do you imitate the identified stars/ characters?
|Country |Yes |No |Row Total |
|Western |51 (73.9%) |18 (26.1%) |69 |
|African/ Nigerian |13 (46.4%) |15 (53.6%) |28 |
|Others |3 (50%) |3 (50%) |6 |
|Mixed |14 (82.4%) |3 (17.6%) |17 |
|Total |81 (67.5%) |39 (32.5%) |120 |

Source: Field of Study 2010 Table vii shows that 73.9% of those who identified with Western Stars imitate their qualities. 46.4% of those who identified with local stars reports imitate of such stars. 50% of the respondents, reports imitation of other countries stars. While 82.4% says that they imitate the qualities of Western and African/Nigerian stars. Generally, 67.5% reported imitation of the countries stars while 32.5% says they do not imitate the countries stars. Table viii: Preference for Nigerian Tv Programmes. Q8: Would improvement in production quality of Nigerian Tv programmes make you watch more of them?
|Response |Frequency |Percentage |
|Yes |107 |89.2 |
|No |13 |10.8 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of Study 2010 The above table data is gotten from the question “would improvement in the production quality of Nigerian/ African television programmes make you watch more of them?” 107 or 89.2% respondent will watch more of local programmes than they are currently doing while 13 or 10.8 will not.

Table ix: Reality of Stars in real life. Q9: Are the characters you mentioned like the people you know in real life?
|Response |Frequency |Percentage |
|Yes |45 |37.5 |
|No |75 |62.5 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of Study 2010 The table above thus shows that 62.5% respondents reported that those they identify as their famous television star is not like those they see in real life. While 37.5% says the identified characters are like those they see in real life. Table X: Degree of Tv viewing contents Q10: How often do you watch the following two broadcast Tv contents. News and current affairs and entertainment.?

|Degree |Frequency |Percentage |
|Everyday |46 |38.3 |
|Someday |33 |27.5 |
|Once in a while |26 |21.7 |
|No opinion |15 |12.5 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of study 2010 From the above table 46 or 38.3 of the respondents says that, they watches news and current affairs and entertainment everyday. 33 or 27.5 of the respondents says they watches it some days. 26 or 21.7 of the respondents, reports that they watches it once in a while. While 15 or 12.5 of the respondents gave no opinion. Table xi: Emigration of the respondents. Q11: would you like to emigrate from Nigeria to another Country?
|Response |Frequency |Percentage |
|Yes |86 |71.7 |
|No |34 |28.3 |
|Total |120 |100 |

Source: Field of Study 2010 The table X shows that 86 or 71.7% respondents would want to emigrate to other country while 34 or 28.3% would not want to emigrate to other countries. Countries like USA, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Britain, Japan, Thailand, etc are countries they would like to emigrate to.

4.2 HYPOTHESES TESTING The chi – square (x2)n contingency table analysis was use to test this hypothesis. This is because, it involves more than one variables.

HYPOTHESIS ONE This first hypotheses examines the relationship between exposure to television and identification of Western television Stars as model among Caritas Students Enugu. The researcher selected 69 respondents that say that the identify with the Western television stars as model while 16 say they do not identify with the Western television stars as models and 35 of the remaining respondents gave no opinion.

Table Xii: Exposure and identification of Western Tv stars or local Tv stars as models.

Q 12. Do Nigerian Youths identify more with Western or local Tv stars as models?
| | | | | | |
|Country |0 |E |0-E | | |
|Western |69 |40 |29 |841 |21.0 |
|African/Nigerian |16 |40 |-24 |576 |14.4 |
|Others |35 |40 |-5 |25 |0.63 |
|Total |120 |120 |0 |1442 |36.03 |

Sources: Field of study 2010

Step I = Hi more exposure to Tv will lead to identification of Western or local Tv stars as models. = Ho more exposure to Tv will not lead to identification of Western or local Tv stars as models.

Step II = The statistical test is (x2) =∑ (O-E) 2 E where O = Observed frequencies E = Expected frequencies ∑ = Summation

Step III = The level of significance is 5% = 0.05 Step IV = The degree of freedom is given by (K-I) Where K = 3: 3-1= 2

Step v = the critical value is given as 5.991

Step VI = Computing the test statistics using table 12 To get (expected frequencies) Total frequencies: No of option i.e. E= 120 =40 3 Step VII = Comparing the test statistics with critical valve of (x2) = 36.03> 5.991. Step VIII = Decision: since the calculated chi- square (x2) valve 36.03 is greater than the critical or tabulated value 5.991, we accept the alternative hypotheses (Hi) which states that more exposure to Tv will lead to identification of Western television stars as models. The acceptance of Hi is because the hypothesis received statistical support. While the hypothesis (Ho) is rejected.

HYPOTHESIS TWO The second hypothesis examines whether improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will increase Nigerian Youths preference for local Tv products. He research selected 69 respondents that says that improvement of local Tv movies industries will increase their preference for local Tv produces while 35 says that improvement of local Tv /movies industries will not increase their preference for local Tv products.

Table Xiii: Preference for local Tv products. Q13: Would improvement in production quality of Nigerian Tv programmes make you watch more of them?

| | | | | | |
|Response |0 |E |0-E |(O-E)2 | |
| | | | | |(O-E)2 |
| | | | | |E |
|Yes |69 |60 |9 |81 |21.0 |
|No |35 |60 |-24 |625 |10.4 |
|Total |120 |120 |-16 |706 |11.75 |

Source: Field of study 2010

Step I = Hi The improvement of local Tv /movies industries will increase Nigerian Youths preference for local Tv products. Ho The improvement of local Tv/movies industries will not increase Nigerian Youths preference for local Tv products Step II = The statistical test is (x2) = ∑ (O-E)2 Where O = Observed frequencies E = Expected frequencies ∑ = Summation Step III = The level of significance is 5% = 0.05 Step IV = the degree of freedom is given by (K-1) Where K= 2: 2 – 1 = 1

Step V = The critical value is given as 3.841 Step VI = computing the test statistics using table 16 To get (expected frequency) Total frequency = No of option i.e. E = 120 = 60 2

Step VII = Comparing the test statistic with critical value of x2= 11.75 > 3.841
Step VIII = Decision: since the calculated chi-square value 11.75 is greater than the critical or tabulated valve, we accept the alternative hypothesis (Hi) which states that improvement of local Tv/movies industries will increase Nigerian Youths preference for local Tv products while the null hypothesis (HO) is rejected.

3. DISCUSSION OF FINDINDS A number of major conclusions may be drawn from the result and findings of this study. There is statistical significant relationship between how often one watches television and one’s tendency to identify with western television star as models. The results showed a positive relationship which means that as television exposure tends to go up, identification with Western television stars especially American television stars also tends to go up. This suggests that the average daily television broadcast content and video cassettes contents in Nigeria are more of foreign origin than local ones. Nigerian youths also tend to identify with Western television star as models for various reasons ranging from their perception of the programmes in which the stars appear as being of high product quality to the believe that the stars themselves exhibit qualities which are in tune with time. This study also indicates that Nigerian University students identify with television stars especially music video stars and movie stars of American origin more than other television stars. More than ¾ of the stars identified featured in American produced television productions and majority of them are gangster musicians as Snoop Doggy Dog, Busta Rhyme, Nelly Roll – land, Late Tupac Shakur, Sean Paul, Joe, Beyonce, Ashanti, 50 – Cent, Puff Daddy, Usher, Michael Jackson, Madonna, Janet Jackson, 11 live crew etc as well as movie stars as Anold Schwarzenegger, silver Stallone, Van Damme, Chuk Noris, Leonardo Decaprio, Lean Clande, Irene Jacolo, Sharon Stone, Cynthia Rothrock, Lisa Boyle, etc Potter (1986). The recurrent noticeable drift of the young generation of Nigerians to the music, life styles and values of television stars of the western world is a clear indication that the youths are watching, not only are they watching more than any other audience group, they are watching actively (Comstock et al 1978). There is no doubt that there exist on our screens movies than needed local television programmes. This has led to the growth of nihilism i.e. “the general disposition to doubt” among the Nigerian youths in whom the destiny of this country lie. If the prevailing rate of weird dressing, sexual pervasion, gangsterism and general moral bankruptcy among our youths is nothing to go by, then one can safely conclude this country is more or less destined to wanton self-destruction. All of these go to confirm that exposure to foreign television alters the original cultural identity of the Nigerian youths. They all show that exposure to Western television lead to low Nigerian self-image and a corresponding high projected self-image among Nigerian university students as a result of their perception of reality of life in the Western world especially American as shown on television (see television projections of reality as the best form of life). The youths therefore, tend to discard Nigerian norms and values (low self - image) and become manifestly consistently with Western behaviour in keeping with their perception of their culture (high projected self - image). This means that what the students learn from television is instrumental in the formation of their cultural values. The results of this study showed that “Westerns” increases as “Nigerians” decreases among Nigerian University students. These confirm the finding by Barnette and McQuail (1980) on the effect of U.S television on Canadian national identity. Potter (1986) examined the relationship between “perceived reality” and the “cultivation hypotheses”. And the findings of Aliu (1982) on the impact of foreign media on the social life of Lagos university students. The perception of Westerners is based on the viewers construction of social reality and the extent to which acceptance exists for television constructed image of Western reality and further the degree to which the viewers is prepared to substitute that reality and therefore identify for his or her own norms and values. The net findings show that Nigerian University Students perceive Western values as a measure of ideal life, accept to a great extent, television constructed image, the Western reality and also to a great extent tend to identify for their own norms and values. Furthermore, the findings of this study showed that students generally would prefer to watch more of local television productions if the quality of their production improves. The results of the findings prove that there will be a positive relationship between the level of television viewing among the Nigerian youths and the television produced products. The policy makers and culture, both the public and private sectors should realize from the findings of this study that there is an urgent need to discontinue with unending litaries about communication and national development aid and take bold measures to put an end to the current trend. This is because the offshoot of the current rate of accumulation in Nigeria to Western norms, values and beliefs do not only stop at any one area of Nigerian economic, social, moral or spiritual life. They rather encompass all these dimensions and more. And as such should be tackled most seriously by every Nigeria. of television in Nigeria and other African countries who should see it as their duties to direct and encourage local television programmes. For elites politicians and social institutions who are the creator, purveyors and reinforcers of the Nigerian cultures. And lastly, the owners and managers of information and culture must put into practice the use of television to create a climate for true national development.

REFERENCE

Bau Rokeoch, S., Rolcash, M., & Grube, S. (1984). The Great American Values Text. New York: Free Press.

Coastock. O. Chaffee, S,. Katmen, M. (1978). Television and Human Behaviour. New York: Columbia University Press.

McPhail, J. L. (1981). The Future of International Broadcasting and Communication. London: California Press.

Nnolum, E. A. (2004). The Influence of Western Television Programmes on the Cultural Values of the Nigerian Youths. Unpublished text.

Schiller, H. (1975). Communication and Cultural Domination. New York: International Arts and Sciences Press.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION.

1. SUMMARY This study contains an analysis of the broad areas presumed scientific research which have showed that exposure to television products of Western origin exercises a powerful influence on the cultural values of viewers from other countries.

In this study, concentration was on Western television as the independent variables and the cultural identity of Nigerian University students.

The role which television plays in transmission of cultures across national frontiers has been reviewed in this study. This ability of television is a function of its qualities rhetoric, imagery, style and language pervasiveness, culture, consistence, repetitiveness etc which collectively make it the highly successful medium that it has become.

The uses and gratification theory have provided ready explanation of why the youths highly associate with the medium which provide them with message and images that they view and accept.

The theoretical synthesis of acculturation, cultivation, mainstreaming, projection and perception of reality taken within the ideological perspective of media hegemony, have shown that television can be used positively or otherwise to foster the growth and development of culture, to assimilate, or completely destroy it. The television was also shown to be a good, but not in any way a dominating contributory to the unhealthy desire by Nigerian youths to emigrate to the Western world.

2. RECOMMENDATIONS With the implications of the findings been clearly put in focus in the preceding chapters, it is the researchers’ view that no further time should be wasted in apportioning blames to individuals or bodies for their roles in the cultural imperialism issue.

The cultural media domination that does exist in the Nigeria content can only take place within the complicity and social consent of the dominated cultures (Cuthbert 1985) and Nigerian youths as well as other audience members seen to offer willing compliance.

However, the following recommendations are put forward by the researcher as means of putting an end to our cultural values genocide and communication neo-colonialism.

1. The media managers and practitioners as gate-keepers must develop a Nigerian cultural inclination and consciousness that will allow for the production of programmes reflecting the Nigerian idiom, develop its own television rhetoric and creative ability.

2. The Nigerian journalist should be aware of his responsibilities towards the community which is the principle way of helping development. As long as he realizes that the conduct of his duty has bearing on mind what is good for the society, then he will always guard against feeding his audience with imperialistic messages.

3. The broadcast houses should also create and project an in-house policy requiring that staff must aim their indigenous name at least while on air. This will make people especially the youths to identify themselves as Africans and not imitators of Europeans and Americans. This recommendation may sound trivial but it will likely go a long way to restoring the pride of being Africans or Nigerian youths. The efforts of African independent television (AIT) in this respect are highly welcomed. 4. Also, a policy should be formulated to ensure that only professionals take charge of the business of films movies production.

5. Further studies should also explore the possible relationship between viewership of Western television and the academic performance of Nigerian students which according to WAEC and JAMB results of recent years appear to be dwindling.

3. CONCLUSION The researches of this research problem have shown that youths of Nigeria can confront the problem of Western television programmes destroying our cultural values.

The educators, parents, community leaders, elites should also by this means help the youths confront the undignified and distorted images so prevalent in Western television.

Given the number of broadcast houses in existence in Nigeria, the researcher believes the country is ready for broad equipment manufacturing industry. The private and public sector should consider this angle more seriously so as to reduce the total dependence of Nigerian broadcast industry on industrialized journey.

Considering the scope and limitations of this study along with its findings, there is need for further speech research in this area. Further research in this area should involve a control group to be consisted of youths who are in the rural areas where television is not available. More studies should also be geared toward defining the cultural values of Nigeria as an entity and as such denies ways of packaging these uniting materials for broadcast to Nigeria. The researcher also believes that there is a better tomorrow if the above recommendations are followed towards restoring the cultural values of Nigerian youths. Finally, the researcher believes that the educators, community leaders, television houses (government and private), the censorship board etc can help in further research on this topic in order to solve this destroyable element of our indigenous cultures.

5.4 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES. Due to the research limitations, time and resource. The researcher suggests that further research should be done on this topic base on the following: (1) How to discourage the Nigerian youths from watching Western movies (2) How to improve locally produced product (3) How to discourage Nigerian youths from imitating Western Stars.

REFERENCES
Defleur, m., & Dennis, E. (1991). Understanding Mass Communication. Boston: Houghtome Mifflin.

Guretz, C.C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Book Publisher.

Mcluharm, m. (1964). Understanding Media the Extension of Man. New York: McGraw Hill Books Company.

Uwakwe, O. (2004). Problem Facing Freedom of Information. Global Communication BI-Annual Journal Vol 1 (1). 17 – 19.

………….(2005). Children and Television Visioning. Global Communicator Journal. Vol 1 (2). 3 – 9.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Atisdiull, H. S. (1984). The Role of the News Media in Human Affairs. New York: Longman Press.

Bau Rokeoch, S. Rolcashs, M., & Grube, S. (1984). The Great American Values Text. New York: Free Press.

Coastock, O., Chaffee, S., & Katman, M. (1978), Television and Human Behaviour. New York: Columbia University Press.

Curran J., & Gurevitch, M. (1991). Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Alnold Press.

Defleur, M., & Dennis, E. (1991). Understanding Mass Communication. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Ezeja, E., & Ogili, D. (2005). Project Writing. Enugu: Providence Press (Nig) Ltd.

Fanan, F. (1976). The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Groove Press.

Gerbner, G. (1977). Mass Media Policies in Changing Cultures. New York: John Will.

Guretz, C.C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Book Publisher.

Lasswell, H. (1927). Propaganda Technique in the World Way. New York: Groove Press.

Lenin, V.I. (1971). Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. New York: International Art and Sciences Press.

Lerner, D. (1962). International Co-operation in National Development. Honolulu: Hawaii East Central Press.

McBride, S. (1980). Many Voices One World. Paris: Unesco Press.

Mcluhan,M(1964). Understanding Media the Extension of Man. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co.

McPhail J.L. (1981). The Future International Broadcasting and Communication. London: California Press.

McQuali, O. (1981). Mass Communication Theory an Introduction. Beverly Hills: California Press.

Nolum, E. A. (2004).The Influence of Western Television Programmes on the Cultural Values of Nigerian Youths. Unpublished Text.

Offing, D.A. (1980). Imperialism and Dependency. Nigeria: Enugu Fourth Dimension Publisher.

Ologbese, E. (2009). Mass Communication American Empire. New York: A.M. Kelly Press.

Schiller, H. (1969). Mass Communication and American Empire. New York: A.M Kelly Press.

……………… (1975). Communication and Cultural Domination. New York: International Art and Science Press.

Skornia, H.J. (1965). Television and Society an Inquest and Agenda for Improving View. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.

Tuchman, G. (1978). Making News a Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: N.V. Longman.

UNPUBLISHED LECTURE NOTES.

Edeani, D.O. (1998). Public Opinion and Media. Unpublished Lecture Note.

Nnolum, E.A. (2004). The Influence of Western Television Programme on the Cultural Values of Nigeria Youths. Unpublished Text.

Skinner, E.C. (1984). Foreign Television Programme Viewing and Dependency. Unpublished Text.

JOURNALS

Uwakwe, O. (2004). Problem Facing Freedom of Information. Global Communication Bi – Annual Journals. Vol 1 (1). 17 – 19

………… ….(2005). Children and Television Viewing. Global Communicator and Television Viewing. Global Communicator, Journal. Vol 1 (2) 3 – 9.

APPENDIX A

DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION, CARITAS UNIVERSITY ENUGU. P.M.B 01784, ENUGU.

Dear respondent,

I am a final year student in the above named department and institution, currently writing a research project on “the Influence of Western Television Programmes on the Cultural Values of Nigeria Youths” using Caritas University as a case study.

This work is purely for academic exercise and shall be treated confidentially to this study and I assure you that all the information given will be treated in utmost confidence.

Thanks

Yours faithfully, Eziechi Ifeoma .S.

QUESTIONNAIRE
(PART ONE)
Please tick as appropriate

1. Sex (a). Male (b) Female

2. Age

(a). Adult (b) Minor

3. Education level attend

(a).SSCE/GCE

(b)OND/NCE (C) Bachelor’s Degree/HND

(d) M.S.C/M.BA

4. Year of Study (a) One (b) Two (c) Three (d) Four (e) Five (f) Post - graduate

(PART TWO)

5. Do your have access to Tv? (a) Yes (b) No 6. On which of the following media do you mostly depend for information and entertainment? (a) Radio (b) Tv (c) Newspaper (d) Magazine 7. How often do you watch TV? (a)Very often (b) often (c) Rarely (d) Seldom (e) No Opinion 8. Which of the countries produced Tv programmes do you prefer? (a) Local (b) foreign (c) Non of the above

9. What is your reason for the answers you gave in the number above?

10. Indicate how often you watch the following two broadcast Tv contents. News and current affairs and entertainment (a) Everyday (b) some days (c) once in a while (d) No option

11. Name three Tv stars/ characters you like best (1) (2) (3) 12. Do Nigerian Youths identify more with Western or local Tv Stars as models? (a) Western (b) No African/ Nigerian (c) others 13. Are the characters you mentioned like the people you know in real life? (a) Yes (b) No 14. Do what you see on Western Tv influence your dressing mode? (a) Yes (b) No (c) No comment

15. Will you approve of girls initiating love relationship with men?

(a) Yes (b). No

16. Would improvement in production of Nigeria Tv programmes make you watch more of them?

(a) Yes (b) No

17. Do you imitate the identified countries television stars/characters?

(a) Western (b) African/Western (c) Others

(d) Mixed

18. Would you like to emigrate from Nigeria to another country?

(a) Yes (b) No 19. If yes, state the country you would want to emigrate to ------------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------
(0 - E)2

(O - E)2 E

E

74

References: Defleur, m., & Dennis, E. (1991). Understanding Mass Communication. Boston: Houghtome Mifflin. Guretz, C.C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Book Publisher. Mcluharm, m. (1964). Understanding Media the Extension of Man. New York: McGraw Hill Books Company. Uwakwe, O. (2004). Problem Facing Freedom of Information. Global Communication BI-Annual Journal Vol 1 (1). 17 – 19. ………….(2005). Children and Television Visioning. Global Communicator Journal. Vol 1 (2). 3 – 9. Bau Rokeoch, S. Rolcashs, M., & Grube, S. (1984). The Great American Values Text Coastock, O., Chaffee, S., & Katman, M. (1978), Television and Human Behaviour. New York: Columbia University Press. Curran J., & Gurevitch, M. (1991). Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Alnold Press. Defleur, M., & Dennis, E. (1991). Understanding Mass Communication. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Ezeja, E., & Ogili, D. (2005). Project Writing. Enugu: Providence Press (Nig) Ltd. Fanan, F. (1976). The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Groove Press. Gerbner, G. (1977). Mass Media Policies in Changing Cultures. New York: John Will. Guretz, C.C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Book Publisher. Lasswell, H. (1927). Propaganda Technique in the World Way Lenin, V.I. (1971). Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. New York: International Art and Sciences Press. Lerner, D. (1962). International Co-operation in National Development McBride, S. (1980). Many Voices One World. Paris: Unesco Press. Mcluhan,M(1964). Understanding Media the Extension of Man. McPhail J.L. (1981). The Future International Broadcasting and Communication. London: California Press.

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