Effect of Rhizobia in Plant Yeild

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The factors affecting plant yield: light level
Abstract
The factors affecting Zea mays, maize (C4) and Pisum sativa, or pea (C3) plant yield and growth patterns placed under shade and full sunlight were investigated. 20 plantlets placed into four vermiculite compost pots (5 from each plantlet) and submitted to fertilizer or no fertilizer. And after 4 weeks the results showed that maize grown in light with no fertilizer had a higher relative growth rate and root to shoot ratio indicating the allocation favoured root development. Meanwhile pea with fertilizer and no light had a higher growth rate and shoot was more allocated since this C3 plants were long.
Introduction
All organisms sense and interact with their environment. This is particularly true of plants. Plant survival and growth is critically influenced by abiotic factors including water, wind, and light. But most importantantly (in our experiment) light as it physical alters temperature which directly affects photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration - loss of water and absorption of water and nutrients. The rate of these processes increases with an increase in temperature responses is different with different crops.
The extent of growth and yield responses of plants to elevated CO2 depends on the photosynthetic pathway. Crops with C3 photosynthesis will respond markedly to increasing CO2 concentrations. Common C3 crops are small grain cereals (wheat, rice, barley, oat, and rye); grain legumes or pulses (soybean, peanut, various beans and peas); root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, sugar beet, yams); most oil, fruit, nut, vegetable, and crops; and temperate-zone (cool-climate) forage and grassland species. (Sionit et al,. 1981) In contrast, plants with C4 photosynthesis will respond little to rising atmospheric CO2 because a mechanism to increase the concentration of CO2 in leaves causes CO2 saturation of photosynthesis at current ambient concentrations. Common C4 crops are maize



References: Bassirad, H., Reynolds, J.F., Virginia, R.A. and Brunelle, M.H. 1998. Growth and root NO3- and PO43- uptake capacity of three desert species in response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 24: 353-358. Bingham. G.E. 1984. Influence of elevated carbon dioxide on water relations of soybeans. Plant Physiol. 74:233–238. Casal JJ Casal JJ, Fankhauser C, Coupland G, Bla´ zquez MA. 2004.Signalling for developmental plasticity. Trends in Plant Science 9,309–314. Runion,G.B., H.M. Finegan, S.A. Prior, H.H. Rogers, and D.H. Gjerstad. 2010. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on non-native plants: Comparison of two important south eastern ornamentals. Environ. Control Biol. (In press). Runion, G.B., R.J Runion, G.B., R.J. Mitchell, H.H. Rogers, S.A. Prior, and T.K. Counts. 1997. Effects of nitrogen and water limitation and elevated atmospheric CO2 on ectomycorrhiza of longleaf pine. New Phytol. 137:681–689. Sionit, N., H.H Sionit, N., B.R. Strain, H. Hellmers, and P.J. Kramer. 1981. Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and water stress on water relations of wheat. Bot. Gaz. 142:191–196.

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