Effect of Junk Food

Topics: Nutrition, Eating, Junk food Pages: 5 (912 words) Published: April 4, 2013
unk food is a derisive slang term for food that is of little nutritional value and often high in fat,sugar, salt, and calories.[1][2][3] It is widely believed that the term was coined by Michael Jacobson, director of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, in 1972.[4] Junk foods typically contain high levels of calories from sugar or fat with little protein, vitamins orminerals. Foods commonly considered junk foods include salted snack foods, gum, candy, sweet desserts, fried fast food, and sugary carbonated beverages. [5] Many foods such ashamburgers, pizza, and tacos can be considered either healthy or junk food depending on their ingredients and preparation methods with the more highly processed items usually falling under the junk food category. [6] What is and is not junk food can also depend on the person's class and social status, with wealthier people tending to have a broader definition while lower-income consumers may see fewer foods as junk food, especially certain ethnic foods. Despite being labeled as "junk" consuming such foods usually does not pose any immediate health concerns and is generally safe when integrated into a well balanced diet. [7] [8] Contents  [hide]  * 1 Health effects * 2 Taxation * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links| -------------------------------------------------

[edit]Health effects
A study by Paul Johnson and Paul Kenny at the Scripps Research Institute in 2008 suggested that junk food consumption alters brain activity in a manner similar to addictive drugs like cocaine or heroin.[9] After many weeks with unlimited access to junk food, the pleasure centers of rat brains became desensitized, requiring more food for pleasure. After the junk food was taken away and replaced with a healthy diet, the rats starved for two weeks instead of eating nutritious fare.[10] A 2007 British Journal of Nutrition study found that female rats who eat junk food during pregnancy increased the likelihood of unhealthy eating habits in their offspring.[11] A report published in the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology suggests that babies of mothers with a high-sugar and high-fat diet while pregnant are more prone to junk food themselves. The study was conducted on rats and suggests that pups "whose mothers eat excessive amounts of high-fat, high-sugar junk foods when pregnant or breastfeeding are likely to have a greater preference for these foods later in life."[12] -------------------------------------------------

In an attempt to reduce saturated fat consumption, from December 2011 – November 2012 Denmark had introduced the first fat-food tax in the world by imposing a surcharge on all foods (including natural ingredients) that contain more than 2.3 percent saturated fat.[13]Hungary has also imposed a tax on packaged foods that contain unhealthy concentrations, such as beverages containing more than 20 mg of caffeine per 100 ml.[14] -------------------------------------------------

[edit]See also
| Food portal|
* Comfort food
* Glutamic acid (flavor), common flavoring compounds and their synthetic versions, which may be added to some processed foods, to boost their savoriness * Health food, foods that tend to be nutrient rich, and may be eaten for their potential benefits to health * List of food additives

1. ^ http://www.wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn[dead link] 2. ^ Glossary
3. ^ junk food - Google Search
4. ^ O'Neill, Brendon (November 30, 2006). "Is this what you call junk food?". BBC News. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 5. ^ Larsen, Joeanne; MS, RD, LDhttp://www.dietitian.com/junkfood.html 6. ^ Linda Larrowe Bergersen: What Makes a Food Junk? 7. ^ What Is Junk Food? (with pictures)

8. ^ Junk-Food Facts
9. ^ Johnson, Paul M.; Kenny, Paul J. (2010). "Addiction-like reward...

References: 9. ^ Johnson, Paul M.; Kenny, Paul J. (2010). "Addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats: Role for dopamine D2 receptors". Nature Neuroscience 13 (5): 635–41. doi:10.1038/nn.2519. PMC 2947358.PMID 20348917.
10. ^ Goodwin, Jenifer. Junk Food 'Addiction ' May Be Real.Business Week. March 29, 2010.[dead link]
12. ^ The children are also more prone to type 2 diabetes, raised cholesterol, and high blood fat. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/07/01/health/webmd/main4222324.shtml "Moms Eat Junk Food, Kids Get Fat". CBS News. 2008-01-06. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
14. ^ "Welcoming the age of disease prevention". December 17, 2011.
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